Southwestern Asian state. The data from the last national census in 2006 are still partial and are being processed by the Iranian Bureau of Statistics. Preliminary data show that the total number of residents has exceeded 68 million units, with an increase of over 7 million compared to the 1996 census and over 3 million compared to the 2001 inter- census statistical survey.. It therefore confirms the dizzying demographic increase in the country, although compared to the previous decade the birth rate is slightly down, in support of the greater and incisive action by the government authorities to favor a more contained growth and, above all, to promote adequate information program in support of women and families in general. The birth rate is still above 17‰; life expectancy has progressively increased (with evident differences between urban and rural areas), contributing considerably to support the overall numbers of the population. The acute phase of the demographic transition is still underway and a significant change in trend over the next decade is unlikely, so the overall population is almost certainly destined to increase further. Over 26 % of the population is under the age of 15, and the percentage rises to 69 % considering individuals up to 46 years of age. Of this extremely young population, about 53% is made up of male exponents. In terms of population distribution, with highly irregular and uneven values, the percentage of the rural population has decreased (38 % in 2006), which generally lives in medium-large villages, with a strong prevalence distributed along the north-south axis. of the country and mostly close to the Zagros mountain range. The percentage of the urban population has also increased, reaching 61 % and is mainly fed by the main cities: Teherān, Mašhad, Iṣfahān, Tabrīz and Šīrāz. The Iranian stock represents the majority of the population, with values around 54% of the total: the Persians are the main group, followed by Gilaki, Mazandarani, Kurdi, Luri and Baloch. The remaining part of the population is made up of people of Turkish origin, Arabs and residual minorities. For Iran 2001, please check naturegnosis.com.
Dominated by the hydrocarbon sector, the Iranian economy experienced a phase of decline between 1998 and 2001, when revenues from the sale of petroleum products had decreased significantly in relation to the general downward trend of the oil market and last but not least, a decrease in the interest of foreign oil companies, as a consequence of the slowness of the Iranian government in revising the contractual formulas for upstream activities (i.e. exploration activities for the search for new fields, drilling and production of the wells) and of the downstream (i.e. transport, refining and marketing activities). To this phenomenon, Iran had tried to provide an adequate response with the promulgation in 2002of the new law for the protection of foreign investments which, although not of direct interest for contracts, nevertheless represented a step forward in the country’s policy of opening up, replacing the previous legislation promulgated in the mid-1950s. In economic and industrial terms, however, the government had failed to intervene with sufficient incisiveness to promote industrial and infrastructural diversification, both indispensable to absorb increasing quantities of available manpower. THERE. has to face a demand for new jobs every year: unofficial estimates identify the new workforce at around 700-800,000 with an absorption capacity that should be around 200,000 units. All this in a system characterized by a very large population made up of young people and with an industrial system, based on oil, less and less able to produce new jobs and, above all, interested in progressively more specialized profiles. In the first five years of the new millennium, despite the critical trend of domestic politics and the growing international isolation, even the Iran was able to benefit from the increase in oil prices. The substantial gains, as well as increase GDP by an annual average rate of 5.6 %, have been widely used to compensate the decrease of the public purse volumes generated during the nineties of the 20° sec. and, to a lesser extent, to augment the traditional compensation system for employment through public sector supply support. Moreover, they did not disappear during the first years of the 21st1st century, the investments made by the main European countries which, indeed, in some cases have even increased their turnover and trade with Iran. Finally, under the new presidency of M. Ahmadinejad (Aḥmadīnežād), the country said it was ready and in favor of the development of new and more profitable axes of collaboration in the direction of East Asia, Latin America and the Indian subcontinent, areas always more interested by the growth in the demand for hydrocarbons and particularly inclined to the development of new commercial relations aimed at guaranteeing the safety and continuity of supplies. China and India, potentially, are in the process of becoming the privileged interlocutors of the Iran, parallel to the historical European partners and to Russia, committed to this
The good economic results obtained in the early 21st century. have had positive results in terms of GDP and trade balance, but not on unemployment, which has remained high (officially 11 %) and inflation (15, 6 %), which started to grow despite a monetary policy resulted in an overvaluation of the national currency. Much of the production activities are under the control of the state. The agricultural sector makes up about 20% of the value of GDP, with an intense development program financed by the government in an attempt to limit the excessive exposure of the sector balance, still largely in deficit given the large import of foodstuffs. As a priority, agricultural activities, which suffer from chronic water scarcity and excessive land ownership, are concentrated on the cultivation of cereals (Azerbaijan area in particular), rice (Gilan area) and barley, as well as tea, a national drink (Gilan and Māzandarān). Iran is also one of the major producers of dates and pistachios, although it is heavily penalized in exports by a chronic lack of infrastructures and by the tenacious competition from Turkey, especially along the European route. Fishing for sturgeon is developed along the coasts of the Caspian Sea, prized for the eggs with which caviar is prepared: a collection and processing center operates in Bandar-e-Anzalī. As for the secondary sector, Iran it is still heavily penalized by the absence of industrial diversification and by the lack of infrastructures, with an economic system still largely based on the proceeds of the production of hydrocarbons and consequently subject to the world economic situation. The country holds the absence of industrial diversification and lack of infrastructures, with an economic system still largely based on the proceeds of the production of hydrocarbons and consequently subjected to the world economic situation. The country holds the absence of industrial diversification and lack of infrastructures, with an economic system still largely based on the proceeds of the production of hydrocarbons and consequently subjected to the world economic situation. The country holds the10 % of world oil reserves, while natural gas is second in the world for total reserves: in 2004 produced about 200 million tonnes of oil and 79 billion m 3 of natural gas and both have represented over 80 % of national exports.