Indonesia Road Network

By | October 31, 2022

The toll road network of Java (green).

According to wholevehicles, Indonesia has a rather diverse road network. The road network is dense on Java, where there are also several highways, which are almost always a toll road. Jakarta has a fairly extensive network of highways. There are also highways that run over longer distances, since 2018 the Trans-Java Toll Road between Jakarta and Surabaya can be driven through. Long-distance main roads are often constructed with 2×2 lanes, but no highway.

On Sumatra, the road network is considerably thinner, with only main roads. Traveling across Sumatra is no easy task, large parts are mountainous or consist of impenetrable jungles. However, the Trans-Sumatra Toll Road is rapidly being developed as the primary road link across Sumatra. There has been talk for years about a bridge connection across the Sunda Strait, a narrow strait between Java and Sumatra. Such a bridge would be about 30 kilometers long. A bridge between Sumatra and Singapore is also an option, via the Singapore Strait. This distance is about 100 kilometers, but there are a large number of islands of reasonable size in this area that do not necessitate one long bridge. The largest span would be about 15 kilometers.

On the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo, Kalimantan, 12 million people live, mainly spread out in the countryside, the largest city is Pontianak with 500,000 inhabitants. There is no real road network in Kalimantan, the large number of wide rivers that run across the island ensure that there are virtually no bridges. In the city of Pontianak, there is only one bridge over the Kapuas River. There are border crossings with Malaysia, but most of them are unpaved.

On the smaller islands there are small road networks, especially in Bali, around the city of Denpasar and around the island. There are few through roads on Lombok and Sumbawa, and although the distances between the islands are short, there are no bridges connecting the islands, you have to use ferry services. There are also hardly any through roads in the Indonesian part of Timor, especially since most of the population lives in East Timor. In the Indonesian part of New Guinea, Papua, a road network is almost absent, the central part is very mountainous and the rest consists of impenetrable jungles.

Characteristic of Indonesia is the extreme traffic at Idul Fitri (Eid al-Fitr), the end of Ramadan. Urban dwellers then return en masse to their native village, which leads to enormous congestion. The suffering has eased somewhat with the construction of more toll roads, but hours of delays are still common.

Toll Roads in Indonesia
Trans-Java Toll Road • Trans-Sumatra Toll RoadJava

Antasari – Depok Toll Road • Batang – Semarang Toll Road • Becakayu Toll Road • Bogor Toll Road • Ciawi – Sukabumi Toll Road • Cijago Toll Road • Cipularang Toll Road • Cisumdawu Toll Road • Gempol – Pandaan Toll Road • Jagorawi Toll Road • Jakarta – Cikampek Toll Road • Jakarta – Serpong Toll Road • Jakarta – Tangerang Toll Road • Jakarta Inner Ring Road • Jakarta Outer Ring Road • Jakarta Outer Ring Road 2 •Kanci – Pejagan Toll Road • Kertosono – Mojokerto Toll Road • Mojokerto – Surabaya Toll Road • Padaleunyi Toll Road • Palikanci Toll Road • Pandaan – Malang Toll Road • Pasuruan – Probolinggo Toll Road • Pejagan – Pemalang Toll Road • Pemalang – Batang Toll Road • Sedyatmo Toll Road • Semarang – Solo Toll Road • Semarang Toll Road • Serang – Panimbang Toll Road • Soroja Toll Road • Sunter – Pulo Gebang Toll Road • Surabaya – Gempol Toll Road• Surabaya – Gresik Toll Road • Tangerang – Merak Toll Road • Tanjung Priok Access Road


Bakter Toll Road • Belmera Toll Road • Kayuagung – Palembang – Betung Toll Road • Medan – Binjai Toll Road • Medan – Kuala Namu – Tebing Tinggi Toll Road • Padang – Pekanbaru Toll Road • Palindra Toll Road • Pekanbaru – Dumai Toll Road • Pematang Panggang – Kayuagung Toll Road • Sigli – Banda Aceh Toll Road • Terbanggi Besar – Pematang Panggang Toll Road


Balikpapan – Samarinda Toll Road


Makassar Toll Road • Manado – Bitung Toll Road


Bali Toll Road • Gilimanuk – Mengwi Toll Road


Most highways in Indonesia are toll roads and therefore well maintained. They often have good facilities such as gas stations and rest areas. Gas stations are modern with large-scale facilities, such as American fast food chains. An electronic toll system called E-toll is in use. Since 3 October 2014, an electronic system has been used whereby traffic no longer has to stop, but can pass through the toll gates at 40 km/h.

Exit numbering

Exit numbering has been signposted on the toll roads since about 2014. The exit numbering is based on distance and appears with the text ‘Keluar’ and then the number. The exit number is signposted on a white rider with black letters.

Road numbering

The Indonesian term for a road number is a Nomor rute.

In Indonesia there is a national and provincial road numbering system. The national roads are called a jalan nasional and are numbered according to a national network. These road numbers do not have a prefix. There are also provincial roads, which are called a jalan provinsi (sometimes still written as propinsi). Both road classes are indicated with the same road number plate, only it then states that it concerns a provincial or national number, with a different background color around this text.

Road numbers have only been introduced on the island of Java.

Route numbers

# Route Length
1 Merak – Serang – Jakarta – Cikampek – Cirebon – Batang – Semarang – Surabaya – Ketapang 1,200 km
2 Jakarta – Bogor – Cibadak 100 km
3 Cilegon – Cibadak – Bandung – Yogyakarta – Ketapang 1,400 km
4 Cikampek – Padalarang 66 km
5 Cileunyi – Palimanan 94 km
6 Tegal – Cilacap 130 km
7 Lohbener – Cirebon 61 km
8 Purwokerto – Cilacap 48 km
9 Ajibarang – Purwokerto – Secang 158 km
10 Banyumas – Buntu 8 km
11 Simpang Labuhan – Bogor – Cianjur 214 km
12 Jakarta – Parung – Bogor 50 km
13 Jakarta (JN1 – JN2) 9 km
14 Semarang – Magelang – Yogyakarta 117 km
15 Yogyakarta – Surakarta – Waru 320 km
16 Bawen – Kartosuro 55 km
17 Tuban – Gresik 88 km
18 Banjar – Kadangherang – Pangandaran 66 km
19 Merak – Suralaya – Serdang 36 km
20 Babat – Padangan – Ngawi – Madiun – Mejayan 162 km
21 Kamal – Bangkalan – Pamekasan – Kalianget 175 km
22 Kertosono – Kediri – Tulungagung 60 km
23 Gempol – Malang – Kepanjen 74 km
24 Mojokerto – Gempol 36 km
25 Probolinggo – Wonorejo 38 km

Asian Highways

Asian Highways in Indonesia
AH2 • AH25 • AH150 • AH151 • AH152


The signage is fairly simple, and road numbers are not always indicated. Green signs with white letters are used, using the Highway Gothic, also known as the Interstate font. Since 2014, Clearview has been the standard for new signage. The arrows on portal signs are also after the American model. The signposts are in normal script, so not in capitals.

Exits are well signposted on highways, with an exit number and the text “keluar” with distance indication. Distance signs are, just like in the United States, simple with a number of targets and the distance behind them, with the indication “km”, as is also common in Germany. Turns are indicated up to 2,000 meters in advance.

Highway amenities, as well as toll gates, are indicated by blue signs. Lane signaling with green arrows and red crosses has been applied on some highways around Jakarta.

Mileage markers

In Indonesia, white square signs are used as kilometer markers, bearing the text “km” with the value in black letters below. They are placed in the middle barrier at highways. On some roads, hectometre posts are also placed every 100 meters. The same kilometer marker is used here, but with the indication in 100s in green below.


Indonesia uses the US markings, with a yellow marking separating driving directions and white markings separating lanes in the same direction. Unlike some other Asian countries, the application of the marking is consistent.

Road signs

The usual road signs, as seen in Europe, are also used in Indonesia. Incidentally, American road signs are also used, for example to indicate road narrowings. Curve signs are also American with yellow shields with black arrows.

Indonesia Road Network