Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
Official State Name :
Republic of Indonesia; Republik Indonesia (Indonesian); Republic of Indonesia (English)
Composition of the government:
Following the results of the national elections (April 17, 2019) and the formation of a new parliament, a new government was formed, which will continue to be led by President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo. This is his second (and according to the constitution the last) presidential term, which will end in 2024.
President Joko Widodo,
The vice-president is Ma’ruf Amin
Coordinating Minister for Political, Legal and Security Affairs Mahfud MD
Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs Airlangga Hartarto
Coordinating Minister for Maritime Affairs and Investment Luhut Pandjaitan
Coordinating Minister for Human Resource Development and Culture Muhadiir Effendy
Defense Minister Prabowo Subianto
State Secretary Pratikno
Interior Minister Tito Karnavian
Minister of Foreign Affairs Retno LP Marsudi
Minister of Religious Affairs Yaqut Cholil Qoumas
Minister of Legal and Human Rights Affairs Yasonna H. Laola
Finance Minister Sri Mulyani Indrawati
Minister of Culture and Education Nadiem Makarim
Minister of Health Budi Gunadi Sadikin
Social Affairs Minister Juliari P. Batubara
Human Resources Minister Ida Fauziyah
Industry Minister Agus Gumiwang Kartasasmita
Commerce Minister Muhammad Lutfi
Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Arifin Tasrif
Minister of Public Works and Housing Basuki Hadimuljono
Transport Minister Budi Karya Sumadi
Secretary of Communications and Information Johny G. Plate
Agriculture Minister Syahrul Yasin Limpo
Minister of Environment and Forestry Siti Nurbaya
Minister of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Sakti Wahyu Trenggono
Minister for Rural Affairs, Disadvantaged Areas and Transmigration Abdul Halim Iskandar
Minister of Agriculture and Spatial Planning Sofyan Djalil
Minister of National Development Planning Suharso Monoarfa
Minister for Administrative and Administrative Reform Tjahjo Kumolo
Minister for Small and Medium Enterprises Teten Masduki
State Enterprises Minister Erick Tohrir
Minister of Tourism and Creative Economy Sandiaga Uno
Minister for Women’s Equality and Child Protection I Gusti Ayu Bintang Darmawati
Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education Bambang Brodjonegoro
Youth and Sports Minister Zainudin Amali
Ministry of Investment and BKPM Chief Bahlil Lahadalia
Chief of the Moeldoko Presidential Office
Government Secretary Pramono Anung Wibowo
Attorney General ST Burhanuddin
Indonesia is a parliamentary democracy with a presidential political system. The establishment of the state dates back to 1945, when independence from the Netherlands was declared. The originally centralized unitary state implemented a fundamental decentralization reform starting in 2001, and many powers and resources were transferred from the central government to lower administrative units. For the past three decades, Indonesia has experienced turbulent times, when it was forced to absorb the transition from a militarized regime to a secular democracy, the Asian financial crisis of the 1990s with a devastating impact on the Indonesian economy, as well as terrorist attacks and ethnic-community conflicts, especially in the Papua region. Indonesia is a member of the G20 group, but its political importance is also given by its geostrategic position on maritime routes. Check equzhou to learn more about Indonesia political system.
Foreign policy of the country
Indonesia strives for multi-vector, balanced and non-aggravated relations with other states. Indonesia is a member of the ASEAN regional group of states and has a preferred closer bond of the integration process with the countries of the grouping. In relation to the great powers, it has historically been a proponent of a policy of non-involvement and generally strives for balanced relations with the main global players. For the same reason, he is interested in the emancipation of the Southeast Asian region from the influence pressures between the great powers. It takes a specific position towards certain smaller Muslim ethnic groups and groups (Palestinians, Rohingyas, Uighurs), where, as the largest Muslim country, it takes on the role of protector of the weaker. Democratic values and moderate Islam belong to the declared instruments of foreign policy, which well describe its well-known doctrines of all direction foreign policy or foreign policy of million friends and no enemies.
The fundamental emphasis in Indonesia’s foreign policy is placed on economic diplomacy and the defense of its position as a medium-sized regional power, both through a network of pro-export-oriented diplomats and through participation in various economic alliances of the global south – e.g. VISTA, MIKTA, TIMBI, etc. – where After all, Indonesia is the common denominator. Indonesia’s priority regional orientation is its membership in ASEAN, but also in thematically oriented Asia-Pacific platforms such as ARF, APEC, and ASEM. In relation to the OECD, it belongs to the group of priority like-minded countries, as well as in relation to the EU, where, however, the partnership still fails to be completely deepened due to different views on green policy. Check recipesinthebox for Indonesia defense and foreign policy.
Relations with the USA are now primarily defined by membership in the QUAD and AUKUS security alliances, which have been gaining in importance in recent years. In relation to the important US trade agreement towards the trans-Pacific region, the so-called Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), no further progress is expected in the near future, when the regional agreement RCEP, which Indonesia has not yet ratified, remains on the agenda, and the primary focus of the CPTPP, which is clearly defined towards the PRC, is basically contrary to Indonesia’s policy of balanced relations.
In relation to China, Indonesia has long emphasized the de-escalation of tensions in the South China Sea, when it repeatedly emphasizes the indisputability of its sovereignty over the Natuna Islands. However, this special economic zone was violated several times between 2019 and 2021 by Chinese fishing boats. This is a traditional point of contention not only in the relations between the PRC and the IDN, but also a number of other neighboring states that assert their greater or lesser claims here. From the point of view of mineral wealth as well as geostrategic position, this is a sensitive topic that has long been resolved diplomatically with occasional fluctuations in the form of apparent non-compliance with UNCLOS principles by one or the other party.
Population: 273 million (2021) , 4th most populous country in the world.
Population density: 124 inhabitants/km2 (Island of Java 1000 inhabitants/km2)
Share of economically active population 67% Population growth rate: 1.3% (2017)
Ethnicity: Javanese 41.71% Sundanese 15.41% Malay 3.45% Madurese 3.37% Batak 3.02% Minankabau 2.72% Betawi 2.51% Banten 2.05% Banjares 1.74% Balinese 1, 51% Makassars 0.99% Krebonedes: 0.94%
The most numerous immigrant ethnic group: Chinese (5 million) Arabs Indians
Religion: Muslim (86.1%) Protestant (5.7%) Catholic (3%) Hindu (1.8%) Buddhist (1%)
It is the demographic dividend that is the main privilege of the Indonesian economy, and its growing purchasing power, as well as the swelling middle classes oriented towards consumption behavior, are an opportunity for Czech exports to the region, as well as investments, for which relatively cheap labor is found here. According to forecasts, the demographic dividend will gradually decrease from 2030, so the coming years represent a certain window that can be used to establish new business activities.