Honduras Recent History

By | June 6, 2022

According to Homosociety, the Maya flourished in Honduras at least as early as the 10th century. II of the Christian era, as evidenced by the grandiose ruins and the famous Copán stele. At the end of the century VI, and at the beginning of the VII, they abandoned their cities, and it seems that they moved to Yucatán. The Aztecs entered Honduras by means of peaceful commercial expeditions, both from the coast by coastal shipping in the Pacific, and on foot, from Tabasco and Chiapas, from the south; or along the Usumacinta river. The Chorotega civilization in central Honduras reveals Aztec and Mayan influences at the same time.

After the discovery and the first exploration of the country (see above), the king of Spain ordered (12 July 1530) that all the regions conquered by the Spaniards from Florida to the Hibueras would depend on the Audiencia of Mexico; however, since contradictory concessions were made to the conquerors afterwards, and their enterprises came into conflict with each other, this gave rise to bitter quarrels, which continued for a long time. This was not remedied by the foundation of the Audiencia de los Confines, created on 11 May 1544 and which was to unify the countries of Central America, with the exception of Yucatán. The independence of Mexico, achieved by Augustine of Iturbide, was due, on 15 September 1821, to that of Honduras and the rest of Central America, which, with the plebiscite of 5 January 1822, incorporated into the first Mexican Empire. Ten days after the abdication of Iturbide, the Mexican general Filisola called a Central American congress, and this decreed, on July 1, 1823, that Central America should form a federation of five states, one of which was Honduras.. Promulgated the Hondurean constitution on 11 December 1825, its capital was established in Comayagua, a city which in 1827 had 80,000 residents; but, destroyed shortly after Comayagua by a fire, the capital was transferred to Tegucigalpa.

The presidency of the Confederation of Central America was exercised in 1830 and 1835 by a Honduran of great character and uncommon intelligence, D. Francesco Morazán. Shortly after 1838, the five states separated to form independent republics. Honduras has made frequent and repeated efforts to reconstitute the Central American union that have been broken in wars and conflicts that have arisen also due to the geographical position of Honduras squeezed between neighboring states.

The most salient moments of the aspiration of the five countries to unite again in a federation, no longer bound to the independence of Mexico, are represented by the first federative constitution of November 22, 1824; from the alliance between Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua proclaimed in Nacaome on 6 June 1847; from the agreement between Honduras and El Salvador in 1850; by the convention of 18 July 1856, stipulated by Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Costa Rica, to expel the North American filibuster Guglielmo Walker from Nicaragua; by the victorious struggle initiated against him by the four countries; by the agreements made by President Barrios of Guatemala, in 1833, with the cooperation of Honduras; by the federation between Honduras and El Salvador, concluded in Amapala in 1895; the resolution taken in Corinto (Nicaragua) by Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras and El Salvador to create a Central American arbitration tribunal; by the treaty of September 15, 1906 for which in San José of Costa Rica, this country, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras undertook to accept as arbitrators in future disputes the presidents of Mexico and the United States; from the peace conference, promoted by Presidents P. Diaz of Mexico and Roosevelt of the United States, to settle a conflict then pending between Honduras and Nicaragua, and held in Washington between November 13 and December 20, 1907, in which concluded a general peace treaty between the five republics, the establishment of a Central American court of justice, and the neutrality of Honduras and its territory, established by art. III of that peace treaty; finally, from the foundation of the Court of Justice of Central America on May 25, 1908. The separation of Nicaragua, because it did not want to submit to the court; the 1916 Bryan-Chamorre treaty, by which Nicaragua granted the United States rights in the Fonseca Bay and in the islands located near the mouth of the San Juan River, which the other four nations regarded as an attack on their sovereignty, produced as the result was the destruction of the Central American court, which was attempted to reconstitute at the Washington conference, held from December 4, 1922 to February 7, 1923, under the presidency of Secretary of State Hugues.

Honduras Recent History