|Population||10.1 million (2021)|
|State system||presidential republic|
|Head of State||Xiomara Castro (1/2022)|
|Head of government||Xiomara Castro|
|Currency name||Honduran Lempira (HNL)|
|Time shift||-7h (in summer -8h)|
|Nominal GDP (billion USD)||28.3|
|Economic growth (%)||12.5|
Honduras is a presidential republic with a constitution from 1982. The head of state is the president, who is directly elected for a four-year term. The president is also the head of the government (which consists of 14 ministers) and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Legislative power is exercised by a unicameral parliament called the National Congress of Honduras (Congreso Nacional de Honduras). It has 128 deputies elected according to the principle of proportional representation for a four-year term. The largest ethnic group is approximately 90% half-breeds, followed by 7% Indians, 2% blacks and 1% whites.
The trade balance of Honduras is in deficit, which is caused by the need to export products with low added value (especially coffee, cotton, corn, sugar cane, clothing and chemical products) and vice versa by importing consumer goods and technology. The main trading partner of Honduras is the United States, which accounts for up to 50% of exports and imports, other partners mainly include the surrounding Central American countries (Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica), Canada, Mexico, Germany, the Netherlands, the UK and Taiwan. Exports of the Czech Republic to Honduras in 2021 increased significantly, almost twice as compared to the previous three years, mainly products with a higher added value are exported, such as plastics and products made from them, weapons and cartridges, then metals, and products made from them, as well like iron and steel.
In 2020, Honduras was hit by both the Covid-19 pandemic and the two most destructive hurricanes in the last 25 years, Eta and Iota, which resulted in Honduras’ GDP falling by 9% of GDP. Although Honduras is still struggling with the consequences of these hurricanes, in 2021 it managed to start economic growth again, even with 12% growth. In January 2022, the new president Xiomara Castro took office, whose priorities are above all the modernization of the healthcare system, food self-sufficiency, sustainable energy and reforestation.
1. Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
Official name of the country: Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras)
President: Iris Xiomara Castro Sarmiento (term 2022 – 2026)
Composition of the government:
Vice President: Salvador Nasralla Minister of Foreign Affairs: Eduardo Enrique Reina
Minister of Health: José Manuel Matheu
Minister of Social Development and Inclusion: José Carlos Cardona
Minister of Finance: Rixi Moncada
Minister of Economic Development: Pedro Barquero
Minister of Education: Daniel Sponda
Minister of Security: Gen. Ramón Sabillón
Minister of Natural Resources and Environment: Lucky Medina
Minister of Agriculture and Livestock: Laura Suazo
Minister of Defense: José Manuel Zelaya Rosales
Minister of the Interior, Justice and Decentralization: Tomás Vaquero
Minister of Human Rights: Natalie Roque
Minister of Infrastructure and Public Services: Mauricio Ramos
Minister of Labor and Social Affairs: Sarahi Cerna Minister of Communications: Ivis Alvarado Minister of Youth: Zulmit Rivera Minister of Gender Affairs: Doris García Minister of Tourism: Yadira Gomez
Honduras is a presidential republic with a constitution from 1982. All citizens over the age of 18 have the right to vote. The head of state is the president, who is directly elected for a four-year term, without the possibility of re-election. The President is also the Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Legislative power is exercised by a unicameral parliament called the National Congress of Honduras (Congreso Nacional de Honduras). It has 128 deputies elected according to the principle of proportional representation for a four-year term. Check diseaseslearning to learn more about Honduras political system.
In January 2022, the new president Xiomara Castro, who is relatively socially oriented, took office. However, in the current composition of the National Congress, President Castro’s coalition does not have a majority (it holds 60 out of 128 seats), and therefore it will be difficult for it to promote its electoral program.
Foreign policy of the country
Honduras is a relatively small player in world and regional politics. The key foreign partner of Honduras is primarily the USA, with regard to trade ties and the large Honduran community living in the USA (remittances from this community account for more than 20% of Honduras’ GDP). Check themotorcyclers for Honduras defense and foreign policy.
Although China has significantly strengthened its influence in Central America in recent years, Honduras remains one of the 14 countries that have official diplomatic relations with Taiwan. Before the election, X. Castro stated that she planned to change her foreign policy towards strengthening ties with China and cutting off diplomatic relations with Taiwan, however, after her election, she reconsidered her position and seems to have abandoned this topic for the time being.
The new government aims to focus on improving relations with neighboring countries in the region, as well as strengthening cooperation with Asian and African countries, including India and the Republic of South Africa. As expected, diplomatic relations with Venezuela were restored in January 2022, which had been suspended since 2010 (during the government of the right-wing National Party).
Population and population density:
According to the last official census in 2013, Honduras had a population of 8.3 million, but the EIU estimated the population of Honduras to be approximately 10.1 million in 2021. Approximately 60% of the population lives in cities and 40% of the population lives in rural areas, with a population density of around 76.96 inhabitants/km². Life expectancy is 80 years for women and 7years for men.
Honduras is a multi-ethnic state and consists of 4 main ethnic groups. The largest ethnic group consists of about 90% half-breeds, followed by 7% Indians, 2% blacks and 1% whites. The Indian group with the largest population is represented by the Lenca tribe, followed by the Misquito, Garífuna, Maya-Chortí and others.
The official language of Honduras is Spanish, which is spoken by the vast majority of the population, with the exception of some Amerindian groups who maintain their own languages. There are also English-speaking communities on the northern coast and the Bahía Islands.
The most practiced religion in Honduras is Roman Catholic – about 47% of the population. Evangelical churches, especially those originating from the USA or South America, are strengthening their position. About 40% of the population apply for them.