According to historyaah, Uzbekistan is one of the cradles of world civilization. Being for many centuries the most important link of the Great Silk Road, it was a place of contact between cultures and spiritual values of the East and West, their active trade, economic and humanitarian contacts.
In the 1st millennium BC. on the territory of modern Uzbekistan, the most ancient state formations were formed, characterized by a high level of material culture – Khorezm, Bactria, Sogd, the Parthian kingdom, the foundations of the ancient Sogdian-Khorezm civilization were born. In the 6th c. BC. – ser. 8th c. AD the territory was successively included in the state of the Achaemenids, the empire of Alexander the Great, the state of the Seleucids, the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, the Kushan kingdom, the state of the Hephthalites, the Turkic Khaganate, etc. To the middle. 8th c. it was conquered by the Arab caliphate, in the 9th-12th centuries. was part of the states of the Samanids, Karakhanids, Greater Khorezm. By the end of this period, the territories of modern Uzbekistan, especially Maveraunnahr, lying between the Syr Darya and Amu Darya, the cities of Samarkand, Bukhara, Termez turned into large agricultural, handicraft.
In the beginning. 13th c. all of Central Asia was conquered by the Tatar-Mongols. In the 2nd floor. 14th c. Amir Temur (1336-1405) came to power, uniting the scattered possessions of Central Asia and creating a powerful empire, the center of which was Maveraunnahr with its capital in Samarkand. Significant progress was made in the development of agriculture, crafts, and trade. Samarkand was experiencing a special upsurge, which was actively trading with India, China, Iran, and Eastern Europe. Amir Temur’s grandson Ulugbek, who ruled in Maveraunnahr in 1409–49, was one of the outstanding scientists and educators of the Middle Ages.
In con. 15 – beg. 16th centuries Central Asia was captured by nomadic Uzbek tribes led by Sheibani Khan (ruled 1451-1510), who came from Desht-i-Kipchak. The economic and cultural center moved to Bukhara, and the possessions of the Sheibanids on the territory of Uzbekistan were known as the Bukhara Khanate (from 1753 – the Emirate of Bukhara). With the development of feudal relations, a number of independent destinies separated from Bukhara, the Khiva Khanate was also formed, in the beginning. 18th century the Khanate of Kokand arose. The khanates waged devastating wars with each other, and there were also constant civil strife within them.
In the 19th century Central Asia is becoming an arena for a clash of interests between Great Britain and Russia. In an effort to maintain its position in the region, Russia in the 1860s. took military action against the Central Asian khanates. In 1867, having occupied the territory of Turkestan, Russia created the Turkestan Governor-General (since 1886, the Turkestan Territory) with its center in Tashkent. To con. 1880s it included the lands transferred to Russia under the peace treaty of 1868 with Bukhara, the lands of the Kokand Khanate, which was liquidated after the defeat of the Kokand uprising of 1873–76. The Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva in 1873 recognized the protectorate of Russia.
The policy of the tsarist government in Turkestan was aimed at turning it into the cotton base of the Russian industry, but at the same time, it contributed to the acceleration of economic development, the formation of a factory industry. Cotton-cleaning and oil mills, the Trans-Caspian, Orenburg-Tashkent, Fergana and Bukhara railways were built, exploration and mining of minerals, oil, and copper began. See ehistorylib for more about Uzbekistan history.
The development of industry was accompanied by the growth of the strike movement of workers, often supported by soldiers. The protests of the local population became more frequent. The intensification of national oppression during the years of World War I caused in 1916 the largest Central Asian uprising, which engulfed the whole of Turkestan and had an anti-colonial character. On April 30, 1918, the Fifth Congress of Soviets of the Turkestan Territory proclaimed the formation of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as part of the RSFSR; in 1920, the Khorezm and Bukhara People’s Soviet Republics were established. On October 27, 1924, the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was formed. In May 1925 the Uzbek SSR was admitted to the USSR. Until 1929, it included the Tajik ASSR. According to the Constitution of the USSR of 1936, the Karakalpak ASSR became part of the Uzbek SSR.
To the 2nd floor. 20th century Uzbekistan has turned into an agrarian-industrial republic with a fairly developed industry, energy, transport system, growing agricultural production, which, however, retains a monocultural – cotton specialization. A number of large irrigation facilities were built. Significant progress has been made in the social sphere, especially in the development of education. But economic growth was not of a complex nature, it was accompanied by deepening disproportions in the national economy, exacerbation of economic and social problems. The republic was rigidly dependent on the union center.
On August 31, 1991, the Supreme Council of Uzbekistan adopted a resolution “On the declaration of the state independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan”, as well as the Law “On the foundations of the state independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan”. The Uzbek SSR was renamed the Republic of Uzbekistan. Karimov, previously elected to this post at the session of the Supreme Council of Uzbekistan in March 1990.