According to historyaah, the territory of Asia Minor (Anatolia), on which in the 14th century. the Turkish state was formed, previously it was part (in whole or in large part) of various state formations of antiquity and the Middle Ages: the Hittite kingdom, Lydia, Media, the Achaemenid state, the power of Alexander the Great, the Seleucid state, the Pontic kingdom, Pergamum, Ancient Rome, Byzantium, the state Seljukids (Koniy Sultanate) and others. 14th c. in the North-West of Asia Minor, a number of Turkic feudal principalities (beyliks) were formed, among which the Ottoman beylik stood out, named after the founder of the dynasty Osman 1 Ottoman (Ottoman). The Turkic people, which formed in this state from various Turkic tribes and part of the local autochthonous population, began to be called the Ottoman Turks. Located on the border of the Byzantine Empire, The Ottoman state was able to fully use its geographical position, attracting the human and material resources of other Muslim territories for the war with Christian Byzantium. K ser. 14th c. The Ottoman Turks conquered the last possessions of Byzantium in Anatolia, during the same period, almost all other Turkic principalities in Anatolia became part of the Ottoman state (voluntarily or under duress). Over the next century, despite many internal upheavals in the country, peasant uprisings, dynastic struggles, a successful raid on Anatolia by the Central Asian conqueror Timur (early 15th century), the Ottoman state managed to subjugate most of the Balkan Peninsula, defeat several crusades of European coalitions powers and, finally, finally crush Byzantium, capturing Constantinople, which was taken on May 29, 1453, renamed Istanbul (in Turkish – Istanbul) and was declared the capital of the new empire. K ser. 16th century The Ottoman Empire reached its greatest territorial power. By this time, huge conquests had been made both in Europe, where the Ottoman Empire then bordered on Austria and Poland, and in Asia – included Mesopotamia and Hijaz, in northern Africa – Tunisia and Algeria. At that time, the powerful Ottoman fleet controlled almost the entire Mediterranean basin, and the Black Sea was an “inland” sea. The total area of the empire exceeded 8 million km2.
However, starting from con. 17th century The “military machine” of the Ottoman Empire began to falter, which led to the weakening of the central government, the collapse of the army and navy, and the general systemic crisis of the empire. A well-known “Eastern question” arises – the problem of the division of the Ottoman inheritance.
During the wars with a number of European countries (and especially with Russia) from the con. 17 to con. 19th centuries The Ottoman Empire is losing almost all of its territories in Africa, the North Caucasus, most of the Balkans. See ehistorylib for more about Turkey history.
Attempts of administrative and military reforms con. 18 and ser. 19th centuries failed to stop the collapse of the empire and the transformation of the country into a semi-colony of Western powers. From con. 19th century the finances and economy of the country were under the control of the Office of the Ottoman Debt – an organization created by foreign, primarily English and French, creditors.
According to the results of the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-78, wars with the Balkan states, early. 20th century the European possessions of the empire were limited only to the territory of Eastern Thrace. In the east, the Ottoman Empire, in addition to Anatolia itself, still owned the territories of Mesopotamia, Palestine, Hijaz.
The Young Turk Revolution of 1908–09 opened up new opportunities for the bourgeois development of the country and significantly limited the power of the sultan. The 1st World War, in which the Ottoman Empire participated on the side of Germany, ended for it with a complete defeat, the separation of the last Arab territories and the occupation of part of Anatolia by the Entente troops. As a result of the national liberation war of 1919–23, the territory of Anatolia was liberated from the invaders, the sultanate was abolished, and on October 23, 1923, the Republic of Turkey was proclaimed, the first president of which was the leader of the national liberation movement Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) that same year. All power was transferred to the Turkish Grand National Assembly (GNA).
During the period when M. K. Atatürk was in power (1923-38), a number of energetic reforms were carried out to “westernize” the country, give the state a secular character and reduce the influence of Islam in its life, new legal norms were introduced, and the foundations of the future etatist economic course were laid. An important step was the decision to transfer writing from Arabic script to the Latin alphabet. At the same time, a rigid, bordering on dictatorship, administration was introduced, the only Republican People’s Party (CHP) operated, from whose members the party-state apparatus was formed.
In the economic sphere, measures were taken to strengthen state influence on the development of the economy, the formation and strengthening of the national industry.
In 1939, the modern borders of Turkey finally took shape after the annexation of the province of Hatay to it by the results of a referendum among its inhabitants.
During the 2nd World War, Turkey managed to maintain neutrality, but at the same time, at the first stage of the war, this neutrality had a clear pro-German character, but later, seeing the inevitability of the defeat of Germany, Turkey preferred to formally declare war on her in February 1945, which allowed Turkey to secure a place among the founding countries of the UN.
After the war, Turkey, taking into account a number of political and territorial claims from the USSR, pursued an active policy of rapprochement with Western countries, in 1952 she managed to become a member of NATO. The normalization of relations with the USSR began only with Ser. 1960s
The post-war period was marked by the liberalization of social and political life, a number of political parties were created, one of which, the Democratic Party, was able to single-handedly come to power in the parliamentary elections in 1950 and was displaced as a result of a military coup in 1960 organized by a group of officers. In 1961 a new constitution was adopted. Until 1980, several coalition governments were in power, the main political struggle unfolded between the two largest parties – the Justice Party (S. Demirel) and the People’s Republican Party, CHP. In 1971, the military for the second time, this time in a “soft” way, dismissed the government. Political extremism was growing in the country, the economy was in an extremely difficult situation. In 1980, the military command made another coup, parliament was dissolved, activities of political parties are suspended. Parliamentary elections were held in 1983, which resulted in the formation of a one-party government led by the leader of the Fatherland Party, Turgut Özal. The government has managed to implement a number of economic measures aimed at liberalizing the economy, reducing the role of the public sector in it, introducing “free market” laws, and encouraging exports. In 1989 T. Ozal was elected president of the country. In 1993, due to his death, S. Demirel became president. introduction of “free market” laws, encouragement of exports. In 1989 T. Ozal was elected president of the country. In 1993, due to his death, S. Demirel became president. introduction of “free market” laws, encouragement of exports. In 1989 T. Ozal was elected president of the country. In 1993, due to his death, S. Demirel became president.
1990s in Turkey were marked by increased political struggle, a number of coalition governments were formed, which, as a rule, turned out to be internally unstable. The main political players in this period: B. Ecevit (Democratic Left Party), M. Yilmaz (Party of the Fatherland), T. Chiller (Party of the Right Path), D. Baikal (People’s Republican Party), N. Erbakan (Prosperity Party, banned in 1998). Difficulties in the economic and domestic political life of Turkey have led to a decrease in the influence of parties that have traditionally been leaders in the political rating. Following the results of the 2002 parliamentary elections, the pro-Islamic Justice and Development Party, headed by R. T. Erdogan, managed to form a one-party government. As subsequent developments showed,