History of Slovakia

By | April 28, 2022

According to historyaah, Savs settled the territory of Slovakia in the middle. 1st millennium AD In the 7th century the territory of Slovakia was part of the state of Samo – the first Slavic state formed by the union of the Czech-Moravian tribes; at 9 – beg. 10th century – as part of the Great Moravian Empire, the early feudal state of the Western Slavs. In the 11th century Slovakia became part of the Kingdom of Hungary, in the 16th-17th centuries. annexed to the Habsburg Empire and remained in its composition until the collapse of Austria-Hungary in 1918. The Czechoslovak Republic, which included Slovakia, was formed as an independent state on October 28, 1918, T. Masaryk became the first president of Czechoslovakia. In March 1939, Germany inspired the proclamation of Slovakia as an “independent state,” headed by the pro-fascist leader J. Tiso. During the 2nd World War, Slovakia participated in the hostilities on the side of Germany. Since 1939, a resistance movement has developed in Slovakia; The anti-fascist armed uprising of 1944 (the so-called Slovak National Uprising) covered two-thirds of the country’s territory. The liberation of the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1945 by the Soviet army made it possible to restore the integrity and independence of Czechoslovakia. With the coming to power in February 1948 of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (CPC) and the proclamation of the country as a people’s democratic republic, the economic reforms begun in 1945–47 were intensified (their central measures were the nationalization of industry and land reforms), a transition was made to central planning, a course towards the industrialization of the country and the co-operation of the countryside. In 1948 K. Gottwald, chairman of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, was elected president of the country.

The Constitution of 1960 approved the country’s new name, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czechoslovakia). In 1968, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, headed by A. Dubcek, took a course towards renewal through the democratization of the existing political and economic system: a new political course, designated as “democratic model of socialism”, or “socialism with a human face”, was adopted by the April 1968 plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and consolidated document “Program of Action of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia”. The process of democratization of the political and economic system of Czechoslovakia, called the “Prague Spring”, was interrupted by the military intervention of 5 countries of the Warsaw Treaty Organization in August 1968 (20 years later, the Soviet government in its statement of December 4, 1989 recognized that “the entry of the armies of five socialist countries into the limits of Czechoslovakia in 1968 was not justified, and the decision about him in the light of all the facts now known was erroneous”). On January 1, 1969, Czechoslovakia, in accordance with the new Constitutional Law, was transformed into a federal state: Slovakia became one of the two equal republics within the federation. In 1989, the socio-political crisis, the manifestation of which was mass protests against the ruling regime, and the apogee – the November events, called the “Velvet Revolution”, led to the fall of the communist regime. The dominant position in society was occupied by the political movement Civil Forum (GF) in the Czech Republic and the movement “Public Against Violence” (OPN) in Slovakia. After the victory of the GF and the OPN in the parliamentary elections in June 1990, a course was proclaimed to build a legal civil democratic society, an accelerated transition to a market economy, integration with Euro-Atlantic structures. He was elected President of Czechoslovakia on Dec. 1989 GF leader V. Havel. In Apr. 1990 The Federal Assembly approved the new name of the country – the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (CSFR). The Movement for Democratic Slovakia (DZDS), which won the 1992 parliamentary elections in Slovakia, advocated the transformation of the CSFR into a confederation and the granting of international legal personality to Slovakia; In July 1992, the Slovak Parliament adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty of the Slovak Republic. An agreement between the federal, Czech and Slovak government circles on granting autonomy to Slovakia could not be reached, and on November 25, 1992, the Federal Assembly of the CSFR adopted the Law on the termination of the existence of the Czechoslovak Federation on the night of December 31, 1992; The Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic became the successor states of the CSFR. Having gained independence, Slovakia confirmed the previous course in carrying out political reforms, continued market reforms, softening the initial reform scenario by strengthening the regulatory role of the state, and declared integration with the EU and NATO as its foreign policy priorities. In February 1993, a representative of the DZDS, M. Kovacs, was elected president of Slovakia. See ehistorylib for more about Slovakia history.

The central figure in the Slovak political history of the 1990s. became V. Meciar, leader of the DZDS and Prime Minister of Slovakia in 1990-93 and 1994-98. In November 2002, Slovakia received an invitation to join NATO, and in April 2003 signed an agreement with the EU on its accession to full members of this organization. Slovakia confirmed the previous course in political reforms, continued market reforms, softening the initial reform scenario by strengthening the regulatory role of the state, and declared integration with the EU and NATO as its foreign policy priorities. In February 1993, a representative of the DZDS, M. Kovacs, was elected president of Slovakia. The central figure in the Slovak political history of the 1990s. became V. Meciar, leader of the DZDS and Prime Minister of Slovakia in 1990-93 and 1994-98. In November 2002, Slovakia received an invitation to join NATO, and in April 2003 signed an agreement with the EU on its accession to full members of this organization. Slovakia confirmed the previous course in political reforms, continued market reforms, softening the initial reform scenario by strengthening the regulatory role of the state, and declared integration with the EU and NATO as its foreign policy priorities. In February 1993, a representative of the DZDS, M. Kovacs, was elected president of Slovakia. The central figure in the Slovak political history of the 1990s. became V. Meciar, leader of the DZDS and Prime Minister of Slovakia in 1990-93 and 1994-98. In November 2002, Slovakia received an invitation to join NATO, and in April 2003 signed an agreement with the EU on its accession to full members of this organization. declared integration with the EU and NATO as its foreign policy priorities. In February 1993, a representative of the DZDS, M. Kovacs, was elected president of Slovakia. The central figure in the Slovak political history of the 1990s. became V. Meciar, leader of the DZDS and Prime Minister of Slovakia in 1990-93 and 1994-98. In November 2002, Slovakia received an invitation to join NATO, and in April 2003 signed an agreement with the EU on its accession to full members of this organization. declared integration with the EU and NATO as its foreign policy priorities. In February 1993, a representative of the DZDS, M. Kovacs, was elected president of Slovakia. The central figure in the Slovak political history of the 1990s. became V. Meciar, leader of the DZDS and Prime Minister of Slovakia in 1990-93 and 1994-98. In November 2002, Slovakia received an invitation to join NATO, and in April 2003 signed an agreement with the EU on its accession to full members of this organization.

Science and culture of Slovakia

Slovakia has a developed base in the field of education and research. The secondary education system includes compulsory 9-year basic schools, complete secondary general education schools (gymnasiums) with a 4-year term of study, secondary vocational schools with a 4-year term of study, vocational schools with a term of study of 2 to 3 years. The system of higher education in Slovakia includes 21 institutions of higher education, incl. a higher police school and two higher military schools. Among the largest universities in the country: Bratislava University. Ya.A. Comenius (founded in 1919), the Slovak Higher Technical School, the Higher School of Economics, the Higher School of Fine Arts, and the Higher School of Musical Arts in Bratislava; P. Safarik University, Higher Technical School, Higher Veterinary School – in Kosice; Higher transport school in Zhilina, etc. Although in the 1990s the number of higher education institutions increased by 7, and the number of university graduates increased by 65%, the proportion of the population with higher education (11% at the end of the 1990s) remains significantly lower than in developed countries. The Slovak Academy of Sciences was established in 1953 and includes more than 40 academic institutes and laboratories. A number of research institutions operate at universities. In the country of St. 20 theaters, the leading team is the Slovak National Theater in Bratislava. There are film studio “Koliba”, a number of conservatories, hundreds of libraries, dozens of museums. The largest libraries are the library of the Matica Slovak in Martin (founded in 1863), the university library in Bratislava (founded in 1919), state scientific libraries in Kosice, Zvolen, and others. The main museums are: The Slovak National Museums in Bratislava (founded in 1924) and Martin (1893), the Slovak National Gallery in Bratislava, the East Slovak Museum in Kosice (1872), the Museum of the Slovak National Uprising in Banska Bystrica, etc. A special place in the cultural and educational sphere is occupied by the existing from the 19th century society “Matica Slovak”, whose task is to support the national language, folklore, culture. The largest newspapers in terms of circulation are: Novi Chas (Novu cas), Pravda (Pravda), Narodna obroda (Narodna obroda), Sme (Sme). Slovak television is broadcast on two state channels STV-1 and STV-2, there are also private TV companies (Markiza, etc.). Works ok. 10 radio stations, incl. 2 state.There is an information agency – the Telegraph Agency of the Slovak Republic (TASR).

History of Slovakia