History of Romania

By | April 28, 2022

In the 18th-8th centuries. BC. the territory of Romania was part of the habitat of the Thracian tribes – the Getae, who settled mainly along the lower Danube, and the Dacians (Transylvania, Eastern Wallachia). The first military-political associations of the Geto-Dacian tribes arose in the beginning of the 1st century. BC. led by Tsar Burebista; in con. 1 in. AD headed by Decebalus, with a center in the city of Sarmisegetusa (Transylvania). In the 2nd-3rd centuries AD under Emperor Trajan, the Romans conquered the lands of the Geto-Dacians. The Roman provinces of Dacia (regions of Transylvania, Banat, Oltenia), Moesia were created, which included Dobruja, Moldova, Muntenia. Roman colonization had a huge impact on the language and culture of the local population. In the 4th-6th centuries. according to historyaah, a great migration of peoples passed through the territory of the country. In the 6th c. Slavs settled on the left bank of the Danube, who came to Moldova and Muntenia. In the 10th-13th centuries. political associations of local Romanized and Slavic tribes (“voivodates”, “knezats”) began to form, which became the basis for the creation in the 14th century. Wallachian and Moldavian principalities. Christianity was spread in them, in the Old Slavonic language until the 17th century. written state and church documents.

Transylvania in the 10th-16th centuries was part of the Kingdom of Hungary. In the 12th-13th centuries. immigrants from Saxony (“Saxons”) and an ethnic group of Hungarians, the Sekui, settled on the territory of Transylvania, who served to protect the borders (valleys of the rivers Trotush, Tyrnava). In the 16th century The Wallachian and Moldavian principalities fell into vassal dependence on the Ottoman Empire. Transylvania with con. 18th century until 1919 was under the rule of the Habsburg Empire. The rulers (“lords”) of Wallachia Mircea the Old, Mihai the Brave, Moldova – Stefan the Great, Transylvania – Iancu Hunyadi became famous for the struggle against the foreign yoke.

The Russian-Turkish wars contributed to the weakening of Ottoman domination in the Danubian principalities and Moldova. After the war of 1828–29, under the Adrianople Peace Treaty, the fortresses on the left bank of the Danube were returned to Romania, and the obligatory deliveries of agricultural goods and timber to Turkey were abolished. General P.D. became the administrator of the Romanian principalities. Kiselev, under whom in 1831-32 the Organic Regulations were adopted, the first constitutional act in the history of Wallachia and Moldova, which determined their state, administrative and legal status.

The revolution of 1848, which engulfed the countries of Europe, found a wide response in Rumania. Prominent figures of the country, Nicolae Balcescu, Mihail Kogalniceanu, Simon Bernutsi, Avram Iancu, came forward with demands for bourgeois-democratic reforms. There were revolutionary uprisings of the people. See ehistorylib for more about Romania history.

After the Crimean War of 1853–56, the movement for the unification of the Danubian principalities intensified, culminating on January 24, 1859, with the election of the Moldavian sovereign Alexander Cuza as the sole ruler of Moldavia and Wallachia, and the creation of the state of Romania with Bucharest as its capital. The new state was recognized in 1861 by Turkey, which, however, retained its sovereignty over the Romanian lands. As a result of a conspiracy of representatives of the boyars and the big bourgeoisie (the so-called monstrous coalition), Alexander Cuza, who began to carry out large-scale reforms, was removed from power in 1866. One of the representatives of the Prussian royal house, Karl Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was invited to the princely throne, who founded the dynasty that ruled in Romania until 1947.

The independence of Romania was recognized in 1878 by the Treaty of San Stefano after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, in which Romania took part. Romania received northern Dobruja with the port of Constanta, but returned southern Bessarabia to Russia, in which this province had been from 1812 according to the Bucharest peace treaty. Transylvania and the Banat remained in Austria-Hungary. In March 1881 Romania was proclaimed a kingdom.

After the 1st World War, Romania, which had taken the side of the Entente since August 1916, got the opportunity to annex Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina after the collapse of tsarist Russia, from Bulgaria – Southern Dobruja, lost in 1913 after the 2nd Balkan War, as well as Eastern Banat and Transylvania, after the 100,000th people’s assembly on December 1, 1918 in the city of Alba Iulia demanded reunification with Romania, the Saint-Germain (1919), Trianon (1920) peace treaties officially recognized the change in the borders of Romania, which increased its territory and population by almost 2 times.

With the outbreak of World War II in 1940, northern Bukovina and Bessarabia were ceded to the USSR, southern Dobruja to Bulgaria, and the northwestern part of Transylvania to Hungary. In September 1940, after the abdication of Charles II in favor of his son Mihai, power in the country actually passed to Marshal Ion Antonescu, who established allied relations with Nazi Germany. From June 1941 to August 1944, Romania participated in the war on the side of Nazi Germany, occupied the territory of the USSR between the Dniester and the Bug (the so-called Transnistria). After the defeat on August 20, 1944 by the Soviet army of the German-Romanian Iasi-Kishinev grouping in Bucharest, on August 23, an armed uprising of the people against the Antonescu regime took place. By order of King Mihai, he was arrested. Romania declared war on Germany and Horthy Hungary, began to participate in the battles for the liberation of Transylvania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia. Under the Paris Peace Treaty of 1947, the northwestern part of Transylvania again became part of Romania.

On March 6, 1945, power passed to a democratic government headed by Petre Groza. On December 30, 1947, King Mihai abdicated and Romania was proclaimed a People’s Republic (PRR).

In March 1948, elections were held to the Great People’s Assembly (VNS), the highest body of state power in the RPR, and in April the first Constitution was adopted, proclaiming the establishment of the power of the people. A radical restructuring of the system of state power, the nationalization of the main means of production, and the co-operation of agriculture began. The Constitution of 1952 fixed the leadership of the Romanian Workers’ Party (since 1965 the Romanian Communist Party) in all spheres of society. G. Georgiou-Dej, Secretary General of the RRP, was elected as the Chairman of the Presidium of the WPC. In March 1965, the RCP was headed by Nicolae Ceausescu, who became president of the country in 1974. The 1965 constitution, which was in force until 1989, approved the new name of the country – the Socialist Republic of Romania.

The mass demonstrations of the population under anti-communist slogans that began in December 1989 ended with the fall of the N. Ceausescu regime on December 22 and the formation of the Council of the National Liberation Front (FNS), which declared itself the highest body of state power. Ion Iliescu, who was in the 1950s-70s, became the head of the Federal Tax Service. a prominent figure in the RCP. The government was headed by Petre Roman. The decree-law issued on December 31 proclaimed democratic rights and freedoms, political pluralism. Already at the beginning 1990 more than 60 parties were registered in the country, incl. the most influential in pre-war Romania, the so-called. the historical parties are the National Tserenist Christian Democratic and the National Liberal. Two ethnic parties arose – the Democratic Union of Hungarians and the Party of National Unity of Romanians. In May 1990, presidential and parliamentary elections were held, which were won by Iliescu and candidates from the Federal Tax Service. In December 1991, a Constitution was adopted at a referendum, declaring Romania a democratic constitutional state with a republican form of government.

History of Romania