As a result of the liberation movement of the peoples of India, the Muslim population of the former colony under the leadership of M.A. Jinnah achieved the creation in August 1947 of the independent state of Pakistan. Until 1971, Pakistan consisted of two parts – western and eastern, the distance between which in a straight line (through India) exceeded 1,500 km of Indian territory. According to historyaah, the weakness of communication between the two provinces, inequality and discrimination in the eastern part caused a broad national movement in the eastern part, which, with the help of neighboring India, won – on the site of the former East Pakistan, on March 26, 1971, the People’s Republic of Bangladesh was proclaimed.
Attempts to introduce the Westminster system of government in a country where there were no conditions and traditions for this led to chronic internal instability. In the midst of an acute political crisis in the country, martial law was introduced on October 7, 1958. All power was concentrated in the hands of the army commander, General M. Ayub Khan, who also became the president of the country. The lifting of martial law on June 8, 1962 changed little in the essence of power. This caused discontent and the growth of the opposition movement. The situation was further complicated by the armed conflict with India in September 1965 and its grave consequences. On March 25, 1969, martial law was introduced, which was headed by the army commander, General A.M. Yahya Khan.
A civil administration was formed, headed by the leader of the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP), Z.A. Bhutto, who became president of the country. On April 12, 1973, the Constitution was adopted, which established a parliamentary form of government in Pakistan. Bhutto was elected prime minister with great powers. He carried out a wide reform of society, for which it was not adequately prepared; the government actions themselves were insufficiently prepared. Pakistan has been hit hard by the deterioration in mid-March. 1970s international economic conditions, as well as adverse weather conditions. All this led to great discontent and the strengthening of opposition parties. Their struggle with the government paralyzed the life of the country. July 5, 1977 there was a coup. The army commander, General M. Ziyaya-ul-Haq, established a military regime, turned out to be the longest in the history of Pakistan. Bhutto was arrested, tried and executed on April 4, 1979. See ehistorylib for more about Pakistan history.
The main policy of the Zia-ul-Haq government was the Islamization of society, including the country’s Armed Forces. On December 19, 1984, a referendum was held, which approved the policy of Islamization; Zia-ul-Haq was declared the elected President of Pakistan. In February 1985, general elections were held on a non-partisan basis. On October 16, 1985, Parliament adopted the “Eighth Amendment” to the Constitution, according to which all the main powers of the Prime Minister were transferred to the President. On December 30, 1985, martial law was lifted, and on August 17, 1988, Zia-ul-Haq died in a plane crash.
The more than ten years of civil rule that followed were marked by extreme instability. Not a single composition of the parliament and not a single government has worked out the term prescribed by the Constitution – 5 years. The two parties, the PPP and the Pakistan Muslim League (PML) and their leaders, Benazir Bhutto and M.M. Nawaz Sharif alternately replaced each other at the helm of power. In the last period of the government of Nawaz Sharif, broad powers of authority again passed to the prime minister. The struggle for political dominance led to an acute conflict between the government and the military command, headed by General P. Musharraf. October 12, 1999 the army again took power into their own hands.
Musharraf’s government managed to stabilize the internal situation and limit the activities of Islamic extremists. After the events of September 11, 2001, P. broke off ties with the Taliban and took part in the antiterrorist campaign in Afghanistan. For this, the sanctions imposed by the West for nuclear tests in May 1998 were lifted from him.
Following a referendum on April 30, 2002, Musharraf was elected president. He made amendments to the Constitution that again expanded presidential powers. On October 10, 2002 parliamentary elections were held. The parties supporting the president formed a government coalition. M.Z.Kh. became prime minister. Jamali.