Already in 4-3 thousand BC. the coastal regions of Oman were settled, through which Mesopotamia and Hindustan traded with Egypt and Ethiopia. All R. 6th c. BC. Oman was captured by the Persians and became a province of Cyrus the Great.
According to historyaah, first 3 centuries AD were marked by mass movements of tribes across the Arabian Peninsula. Oman was settled by the Arab Bedouins of the Azd tribe from Western Arabia. By the 7th c. AD the population of Oman was converted to Islam (630). In 633 (34) the territory of Oman became part of the Arab Caliphate. The Omani tribes adopted the Ibadi doctrine at the turn of the 7th-8th centuries. The first imam (the spiritual head of the local Muslims) was elected in 749. But already 886 became the year of the collapse of the medieval imamate – the Omani tribes entered into a struggle among themselves, which led to the destruction of the imamate and the victory of the leaders of the Nabahan tribe, who ruled until 1428, when the imams again won power. From con. 9th c. the imams were subordinate to the Abbasids.
In 1507 Muscat and coastal areas were captured by the Portuguese. By 1645, Persian troops and the Anglo-Dutch fleet drove them out of the coastal regions. In 1650, Imam Sultan ibn Seif al-Yaribi finally ousted the Portuguese. Imam Seif ibn Sultan (1692-1711) from the al-Yaribi dynasty acquired the title of “Lord of the Lands”, because. to con. 17th century The Omani empire included spaces from East Africa to Bahrain.
In the beginning. 18th century In Oman, a civil war broke out between the tribes of the Hinavi and Ghafiri groups. The power of the al-Yaribi dynasties was weakened. Sultan from the new ruling dynasty of Al Bu Said – Ahmad bin Said was elected imam in 1749. He managed to stop the civil war, and Oman was able to restore some of its former power. In the 2nd floor. 18th century the influence of Great Britain, France and the Wahhabi forces of Central Arabia increased. The treaties that secured the British protectorate over Oman were concluded in 1798 and 1888. See ehistorylib for more about Oman history.
To the beginning 19th century the territory of Oman was divided into the Imamate of Oman, the Sultanate of Muscat (turned into a British protectorate in 1891) and the Pirate Coast (from 1853 – Trucial Oman, from 1971 – the United Arab Emirates).
To the beginning 20th century The split in Oman deepened, aided by British policy. The power of the Sultan of Muscat, subject to Great Britain, was practically limited to the coast. Most of the interior of the country was part of the Imamat, independent of British tutelage. During this period, tribal strife intensified in the interior of Oman, and anti-British speeches became more frequent. In a short time, the rebels liberated the entire territory of Oman, with the exception of Muscat and coastal areas, which were under the protection of the British fleet. An independent Imamat was formed in 1913. In 1920, the Sultan of Muscat was forced to sign the Sibi Peace Treaty and recognize the independence of the Omani Imamat. As a result, Oman and Muscat became politically isolated from each other. In 1957 Sultan Said bin Teymur of Muscat, with the military support of Great Britain, occupied the Imamat of Oman. By 1959, the British had restored the Sultan’s sovereignty over the country. Britain formally abolished the Sibe Treaty and ended the rule of the Imams. The people of Oman proper continued to fight the invaders, especially in the 1960s. in the south of the country in Dhofar. Here the Dhofar Liberation Front (FLO) was formed (1965), which set as its goal the fight against the Sultan of Muscat and the British colonialists. This movement was further developed, and in 1971 a new larger organization, the National Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Persian Gulf (NFLOiPZ), was created. Here the Dhofar Liberation Front (FLO) was formed (1965), which set as its goal the fight against the Sultan of Muscat and the British colonialists. This movement was further developed, and in 1971 a new larger organization, the National Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Persian Gulf (NFLOiPZ), was created. Here the Dhofar Liberation Front (FLO) was formed (1965), which set as its goal the fight against the Sultan of Muscat and the British colonialists. This movement was further developed, and in 1971 a new larger organization, the National Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Persian Gulf (NFLOiPZ), was created.
After the discovery of oil in 1964, the changes in the life of Oman became irreversible. On July 23, 1970, Sultan Said bin Teymur was deposed by his son Qaboos bin Said. One of his first steps was the announcement on August 9, 1970 of changing the name of the state to a new one – the Sultanate of Oman. Sultan Qaboos put an end to the historical division of the country into coastal and inland parts. He gradually liberalized and modernized the political regime and economy of the country. In the beginning. 1980s he crushed the insurgency in Dhofar.
In 1981, Sultan Qaboos formed an Advisory Council, which in 1991 was transformed into the Shura Council. In November 1996, the Sultan signed the first Basic Law (Constitution) of Oman, which defined the powers of the Sultan and the succession to the throne, and also proclaimed the basic rights of citizens for the first time.
In the 1980s The Sultan granted the United States the right to deploy a contingent of the Air Force and the Navy in Oman. During the 1991 and 2003 wars in the Persian Gulf, Oman became one of the military bases of the anti-Iraq coalition forces.
In the 1990s Oman has settled border disputes with Yemen, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
Science and culture of Oman
Education in Oman is free and public. Over the past 30 years, 300 primary schools have opened in the country. In total, there are 1125 schools of various levels in Oman (2001). They receive public education approx. 550 thousand students and private – 24 thousand. The Technical College became the first institution of higher education, in 1986 the University. Sultan Qaboos. In the 2000/01 academic year, 9075 students (4722 men, 4353 women) studied there. In addition, there are 6 pedagogical colleges, 4 specialized institutes (medical, financial, etc.), 5 technical institutes and 7 Islamic colleges in the country. The number of faculty members of all Omani universities in the 1997/98 academic year was 1307 people. In 2002, 331 million rials were spent on education (11.5% of the budget, or 2nd place in the system of budget expenditures).
The historical monuments of Oman are represented by more than 100 forts, the oldest stone tombs on the planet (in the Ibra region). An ingrained tradition is camel racing and Omani bullfighting. The shipyard in Sur still makes traditional Arabic dhows. The most interesting museums are: Beit al-Zubair (Zubair’s House in Muscat – local history museum), Beit al-Falaj Fort (Military Museum), Jalali Fort (16th century), National Museum, Oman Museum; Sohar Fort Museum, Salal Ethnographic Museum. Architectural sights: Muscat – al-Alam Palace (1970), the architectural symbol of the capital; the mosque of Sultan Qaboos (2001) – the 2nd largest in the Arab world; the Mosque of Mazin bin Gaduba in Samael (the oldest in Oman, 627); ash-Shawadna Mosque in Nizva (early 7th century); fort Nizwa (17th century); fort Nakhl (17th-18th centuries); fort al-Hazm (18th century).