In the Stone Age, according to historyaah, the mountain valleys of Nepal were inhabited mainly by Tibeto-Burman tribes. The first state formations were headed by the semi-mythical Gopal and Kirat dynasties. Terai in the 1st millennium BC were inhabited by Indo-Aryans, closely associated with North India. It was here, in Lumbini, that the founder of Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BC) was born in the Shakya tribe. Up to the 18th century. there was no single state on the territory of Nepal, but there were many different entities. In the 1st millennium, the most famous was the Newar state headed by the Lichchhavi dynasty in the Kathmandu valley (4th-8th centuries). It was under a significant influence of Indian civilization, but also experienced a certain influence of Tibet. At the same time, the Newar state became one of the main centers for the spread of Buddhism to the north. In the beginning of 13th century.
During this period, the migration of the Indo-Aryan population is growing, primarily to Western Nepal. On the basis of mixing with the autochthons, the formation of the Khas people (modern Nepalese) begins. Their numerous principalities often pursued an aggressive policy already from the 13th century. (incursions into Tibet and the Kathmandu valley). All R. 18th century the ruler of the principality of Gorkha (formed in the 16th century) Prithvi Narayan Shah created a military confederation and began to conquer. In 1769 he became the king of Nepal after capturing the Kathmandu valley. Expansion, which continued until the beginning. 19th century (even territories that are not part of modern Nepal were included in the new state), was stopped by external forces. In 1792, after the invasion of Tibet, Nepal was defeated by the Chinese army. In 1814, the Anglo-Nepalese War began, ending with the signing of the Treaty of Segaul (1816), according to which Nepal was deprived of part of its possessions and agreed to British control over its foreign policy relations. Nepal was artificially isolated from the outside world. See ehistorylib for more about Nepal history.
In 1846, after the physical elimination of most members of the rest of the feudal elite, the autocratic Rana family came to power, which created a system of hereditary prime ministers (the first was Jang Bahadur Rana). The institution of the monarchy was preserved, but the power of the king was purely nominal. After the Shamshers’ coup (1885), a certain degradation began. The Rana began to essentially control the entire economy, and most of the embezzled funds were exported from the country. Increased migration from the country. Nepal allowed the UK to start recruiting Nepalese into the army. More than 200 thousand Nepalese citizens fought during the 1st and 2nd world wars.
The independence of India sharply intensified the anti-ranist struggle. The Nepalese Congress (NC), formed in India in 1947, immediately organized a movement of civil disobedience in Nepal. In 1950, the People’s Commissariat adopted a decision to start armed operations. The flight of King Tribhuvan to India hastened the events. The legal formalization of the liquidation of the ranacracy was the Provisional Constitution of 1951, which proclaimed the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and abolished the exclusive rights and privileges of members of the Rana family. In 1959, in accordance with the adopted new Constitution, the first parliamentary elections were held, in which the NK won. In 1960 there was a royal coup. It was announced the dissolution of the Cabinet of Ministers, the abolition of a number of articles of the Constitution, the prohibition of all parties and political organizations and the establishment of a regime of personal power of the king.
The monarchy pursued a course towards the elimination of feudal and semi-feudal relations, the implementation of land reform (the Law on Agrarian Reform was adopted in 1963), industrialization, and the pursuit of an independent foreign policy. In the 2nd floor. In the 1980s, in the face of a deteriorating economic situation and the impact of the demonstration effect of other countries, the struggle for democratization began to intensify. In 1990, a multi-party system was introduced, and a coalition government of NK and the United Left Front was formed (it included numerous communist groups). The provisional constitution of 1990 secured the country’s transition to a constitutional monarchy.
In 1991, the NK won the parliamentary elections and formed a government headed by G.P. Koirala. Internal political differences led to his resignation in 1994. New elections brought victory to the Nepalese Communist Party (United Marxist-Leninist) NCP (UML), but it did not have a majority of seats in Parliament. As a result, successive coalition governments were in power for 5 years. In 1999, in the elections, the NK again won the majority of seats in parliament and formed its own government headed by K.P. Bhattarai. However, the intensified intra-factional struggle led to a political leapfrog: in 2000, G.P. Koirala, in 2001 – Sh.B. Deuba, in 2002 – L.B. Chand (all – for the second time in 1990_-), in 2003 – S.B. Thapa (he held this post 5 times in the 1960s-80s).
In 2001, King Birendra, along with several other family members, was killed in a family quarrel. His younger brother Gyanendra was proclaimed king.
From Ser. 1990s the Maoist guerrilla movement in rural areas sharply intensified. In November 2001, a state of emergency was even declared in the country. Thousands of people have been killed in recent years. Several times the parties agreed on a cessation of hostilities (the last time was in 2003), but each time the truce did not last long.