According to historyaah, the territory of modern Morocco has been inhabited since ancient times. The primitive inhabitants of the country are the tribes of the Libyans, the ancient Berbers. In the 12th century BC. the Phoenicians tried to conquer the country, later – the Carthaginians, from the 2nd century. BC. Romans, 5th c. AD – vandals, in the 6th c. – Byzantium, in the 7th-8th centuries. – Arabs, in the 15th century. – Europeans: Portuguese, Spanish, French. Under the international agreements of 1900, 1904, and 1912, a French protectorate was established in most of the territory of Morocco, a Spanish protectorate in the extreme south and north, and the city of Tangier and the territory adjacent to it constituted an international zone.
The establishment of foreign domination in Morocco provoked fierce resistance from the masses. In the 1920s an armed uprising was raised by the Reef highlanders, led by Muhammad Abd al-Kerim al-Khattabi. In 1921, they utterly defeated the Spanish army, and on the liberated territory they created the Reef Republic, which lasted until 1926. After the defeat of the Reef Republic, resistance to the colonialists continued until 1956, when the country achieved independence. National state institutions were created; carried out administrative reform; reorganized the judiciary; planned principles have been introduced into the socio-economic development of the country; measures have been taken to ensure financial independence; “Moroccanization” of state institutions and enterprises was carried out; introduced a multi-party system. See ehistorylib for more about Morocco history.
Science and culture of Morocco
Research institutions – National Center for Coordination and Planning of Scientific and Technical Research (Rabat, founded in 1976); Scientific Institute (Rabat, 1920); Experimental Center for Agricultural Hydrology (Rabat, 1953); National Institute for Agricultural Research (Rabat, 1930); Scientific Institute of Marine Fisheries (Casablanca, 1947); National Committee of Geography of Morocco (Rabat, 1959); Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control (Rabat, 1990); National Institute of Hygiene (Rabat, 1930); Pasteur Institute (Casablanca); Pasteur Institute (Tangier, 1912); Department of Geology (Rabat, 1921), etc. There are city libraries in different regions of the country.
Work Academy of the Kingdom of Morocco (Rabat, 1977); Society for Horticulture and Plant Acclimatization (Casablanca, 1914); National Society for Informatics (Rabat, 1982); Society for Economic, Social and Statistical Research (Rabat, 1933); Society of Andalusian Music Lovers (Casablanca, 1956); National Society of Moroccan Geographers (Rabat, 1916); Society of Natural and Physical Sciences (Rabat, 1920). Seven national universities: in Fez (Karaouinskiy, 859), Marrakech (1978), Casablanca (1975), Agadir (1989), Oujda (1978), them. Mohammed V in Rabat (1957), im. Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah (Fes, 1975), a number of other institutions of higher education and many colleges providing education in the field of culture and fine arts.
Primary education is compulsory for children aged 7-13. Secondary education is designed for teenagers aged 13-18. 69 vocational schools, 68 universities.
The literature of Morocco in Arabic and French is represented by Arabic and French-speaking poets, prose writers, and playwrights. The Moroccan Writers’ Union was founded in 1960. The literary and artistic journals Afak and Aklam have been published since 1963–64.
The oldest monuments of art in Morocco are represented by rock carvings of animals (elephants, antelopes) and birds of the Neolithic era. By the 1st millennium BC. include stone burial grounds (shushi) of the first inhabitants of Morocco and the remains of the Phoenician colonies (Tingis – modern Tangier; Shella). From 1st c. BC. – 3 in. AD the ruins of the Roman cities of Volubilis, Tamuda, Tingis, which are the remains of architectural ensembles, mosaics, and sculptures, have been preserved. In the first centuries A.D. Berber art was formed on the territory of Morocco; with the advent of the Arabs and the spread of Islam, the traditions of Muslim religious architecture, ornament, and epigraphy were strengthened; in the Middle Ages – the southern Spanish influence of Andalusia. Based on the established interaction of Berber, Arabic and Spanish traditions in the 11th-15th centuries. one of the so-called schools was formed and developed. Moorish art. Characteristic monuments are kasbah, medina, surrounded by walls with rectangular towers and fortified powerful gates. In cult architecture, these are original buildings of mosques, which are a square minaret with relief brick or carved stone decor at the top of the walls with a domed lantern. With the spread of Sufism, zawiya cult complexes appeared. Their architecture retained the features of contemporary madrasahs and mosques. Fortifications (fortresses and city fortifications) dating from the 11th-14th centuries are characterized by rectangular towers and gates decorated with stone carvings. The ornament is distinguished by a complex interweaving of geometric, floral and epigraphic images.
Monuments of the 16th and 17th centuries, mostly repeating established forms, are characterized by excessive splendor. From con. 17 – beg. 18th century there were attempts to create grandiose architectural structures. In the 19th century luxurious palaces are being built in Fez, Meknes, Marrakesh with a number of courtyards and halls. The monumental architecture is characterized by ceilings in the form of a 4-sided pyramidal tent under a green tiled roof. Unlike other countries of North Africa, garden and park architecture has become widespread in Morocco. The dwellings of poor farmers are “nuala” huts, round or rectangular in plan, on an adobe platform, with reed walls smeared with clay and a cone-shaped thatched roof. The dwelling of nomads is a chaim tent made of woolen fabric stretched on poles. Berber folk dwellings in the mountains of the High Atlas are fortified multi-storey castles with powerful adobe walls and towers, courtyards, barns, stables. Their facades with battlements and loopholes are decorated with adobe or painted ornaments. Urban dwellings are 1-2-story houses with courtyards surrounded by stone or clay galleries with arcades on columns and paintings in the openings.
After gaining independence, industrial and standard housing construction began in the cities. Large cities consist of quarters of modern European buildings, comfortable hotels, villas, mansions, hospitals, residential buildings.
The decorative and applied art of Morocco is represented by silk and brocade fabrics and carpets, artistic processing of leather, metal, and ceramics with stamped geometric and floral multi-color patterns. During the years of independence, it received a new development. Applied art cooperatives were created. Carpet weaving, embossing and embroidery on leather, ceramics, chasing and inlay on copper, and jewelry were developing.
Musical culture is represented by Berber, Arabic and Andalusian traditions. The Berber musical culture is characterized by a close relationship between music, poetry and dance. Arabic music is represented by the system of maqams (maqamat). Religious music – recitation (solo, without instrumental accompaniment) of the Koran and adhan (call to prayer). In ritual ceremonies, religious songs-praise prevail in combination with dances and body movements that lead the performers into a state of trance. On Muslim holidays, madikhs are performed – songs of praise and mawlids – songs that tell about the birth of the prophet, qasidas of religious content.
Andalusian music took shape in the 13th and 14th centuries, absorbing much of the classical Arabic musical tradition. In the 16th-18th centuries griha was born – songs of Andalusian origin, associated with the colloquial dialect Melhun. They are characterized by a couplet form with a chorus.
At 19 – beg. 20th century In Morocco, European musical culture, mainly French, became widespread. Numerous musical and music-dance ensembles have sprung up; the Symphony Orchestra of the Rabat Conservatory, the Radio Orchestra, the Royal Orchestra, etc. were created. There are 6 conservatories in different cities of the country. Music festivals are held annually (including the Folk Art Festival in Marrakech), congresses of Arabic music.
The theatrical art of Morocco arose in the 12th century. and was a combination of rituals, folk rituals, games. The theater of shadows and puppets, performances of itinerant storytellers were widespread. The first professional troupe worked in Fez in 1923-29. Small troupes – in Sale and Tangier. After gaining independence, the National Theater named after Mohammed V in Rabat and the Municipal Theater in Casablanca arose. Their repertoire includes European and Russian classics and plays by modern Arabic playwrights. In 1961 the first professional radio troupe was organized. There are more than 100 amateur troupes. In 1959, the Center for Dramatic Arts was established in Rabat, with a school attached to it that trained actors and stage technicians (in 1962 it was included in the National Conservatory of Music, Dance and Dramatic Art).
The Moroccan Center for Cinematography and the first film studio, Sussi, were founded in 1944. In 1958, regular production of Moroccan newsreels began. Short films were also created – up to 30 annually. Most Moroccan filmmakers were educated in film schools in Western Europe and the United States. Between 1968 and 1970, the national film studio Ain Choquet was set up on the outskirts of Casablanca. In 1968, the production of full-length fiction films began, which amounted to from 1 to 4-5 films a year. For the most part, these were adventure films co-produced with France, Italy, Spain, Egypt, Romania and other countries, which were an imitation of Egyptian melodramas and Hollywood films of the 1940s. National cinematography is quite developed. Morocco is a participant (since 1968) of the annual international film festivals of Asian and African countries in Tashkent, and since 1976 – Asian countries, Africa and Latin America; Diploma winner and winner of some of them. Film distribution is controlled by national companies. The activity of foreign rental companies is limited. There are branches of major international film monopolies (20th century Fox, United Artists, etc.). Imported annually approx. 450 foreign films. There are approx. 250 cinemas and several dozen film installations. In order to expand the production of documentaries and popular science films, the National Federation of Film Clubs and the Association of Documentary Films have been established. There are approx. 250 cinemas and several dozen film installations. In order to expand the production of documentaries and popular science films, the National Federation of Film Clubs and the Association of Documentary Films have been established. There are approx. 250 cinemas and several dozen film installations. In order to expand the production of documentaries and popular science films, the National Federation of Film Clubs and the Association of Documentary Films have been established.
The press is represented by official pro-government, party and independent newspapers and magazines. The official news agency is Magreb Arab Press (Rabat, founded in 1959). Broadcasting (Rabat, founded in 1961) is run by a government service. It broadcasts in Arabic, Berber, French, English, Spanish. Television (Rabat, founded in 1966) broadcasts daily in Arabic and French.