According to historyaah, Lebanon has an eventful history dating back to biblical times. The newest period of the country’s history is also full of events. During World War I (1914–18), in 1916, the Sykes-Picot agreement was signed on the division of the interests of Great Britain and France in the Arab territories of the Ottoman Empire. Lebanon fell into the zone of French interests. In 1920, the period of the French mandate began, which spread to the territories of modern Lebanon, Syria and Antioch (regions of modern Turkey). On September 1, 1920, the State of Greater Lebanon was proclaimed. In May 1926, the Constitution was adopted, according to which power was divided according to the confessional principle between Christians and Muslims. Greater Lebanon was transformed into the Lebanese Republic, with the Orthodox Christian Charles Dabbas elected as its first president. In 1932 the French authorities conducted a census of the population. Based on the data received on the number of different confessions in Lebanon, norms for the representation of religious communities in state bodies were adopted.
In 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, all power passed to the Vichy commissar, General Henri Dentz. However, already in 1941, British and Free French troops began to invade Syria and Lebanon from Palestine. On November 22, 1943, the French mandate was canceled – this day is considered the national holiday of the independence of the Lebanese Republic. At the same time, an unwritten agreement was concluded between Christians and Muslims, the so-called. National pact, on the principles of state formation. In 1946 the last French troops left Lebanon. In 1948 Lebanon took part in the 1st Arab-Israeli war. All R. 1950 – 1st floor. 1960s Lebanon began a period of socio-economic stability. The country has gained a reputation as Middle Eastern Switzerland. During these years, Lebanon experienced an economic boom, the role of Beirut as a financial center increased – an intermediary between the oil countries and the West. In 1966, one of the largest local banks, Intra, went bankrupt, causing a government crisis and heralding the end of a period of relative stability.
In the civil war (1975-90), the so-called. the two-year war of 1975-76, which ended with the entry of Syrian troops as the Inter-Arab Deterrence Force. From March to June 1978, Israel conducted Operation Litani to neutralize the activities of Palestinian militants in Lebanon. Israel launched a new large-scale invasion of Lebanon in June 1982. Operation “Peace in Galilee” led to the siege of Beirut, forcing Palestinian troops to leave Lebanon under the control of UN forces. By May 1983, an agreement was reached according to which Israel was to leave Lebanon, leaving only a limited contingent to control the border, and the Syrians to withdraw from the Bekaa Valley. Despite the refusal of the Syrians to leave the valley, Israeli troops withdrew to the southern borders of Lebanon. By the beginning of 1985, the majority of Israeli units had left Lebanon. See ehistorylib for more about Lebanon history.
The inaction of the Lebanese government and regular army led to armed clashes between various militia units of the Lebanese religious communities throughout the war years. So, in 1980, intra-Christian clashes took place, culminating in the unification of Christian detachments around the “Lebanese Forces” and their leader Bashir Gemayel. In 1983 there was a so-called. Mountain war between Lebanese forces, Druze units of the Progressive Socialist Party (PSP) and their supporters for influence in the region. In 1985, the War of the Camps began and lasted for about two years, in which the Shiite Amal militia, on the one hand, and the Palestinians, on the other, became the main opposing forces. The main hostilities unfolded in Beirut and southern Lebanon. Also in 1985, there was fighting in Tripoli between the Palestinians and the Syrian army. February 1987 was marked by an armed conflict in the capital between Amal, the PSP Druze militia and Communist Party units. In 1988-90, Beirut and the south of the country were engulfed in a war between Amal and the radical Islamist group Hezbollah, which influenced the Shiite community.
In September 1989, a meeting of the National Assembly was held in Al-Taif, at which the Charter of National Reconciliation (consent), known as the Taif Agreement, was adopted. The norms for the representation of religious communities in government bodies were revised and a course was taken to eradicate confessionalism in all spheres of Lebanese society.
In October 1990, General Aoun’s troops were defeated by the Lebanese army and Syrian troops. Aoun himself was forced to emigrate to France, where he lives to this day, leading the Lebanese political opposition. Historians conditionally consider the date of the defeat of Aoun’s troops to be the beginning of the post-crisis period in the modern history of Lebanon.
In 1991, the main militia units that participated in the civil war were disarmed. In 1992, the first post-war parliamentary elections were held, and in 1996 – the second and in 2000 – the third parliamentary elections. The first parliamentary elections were boycotted by most of the Christians in protest against Syrian interference in the internal affairs of Lebanon. At the same time, Islamists entered parliament for the first time.
In 1996, Israel launched Operation Grapes of Wrath against Hezbollah. In 2000, Israel withdrew its troops from southern Lebanon. In 2002, the Arab League summit was held in Beirut.
Lebanese science and culture
Lebanon can rightly be called a cultural, scientific and educational center. The education system in Lebanon is in many ways similar to the French educational model. There is an elementary school (from 6 to 12 years old), a preparatory school (from 12 to 15 years old), a secondary school (from 15 to 18 years old), ending with a bachelor’s degree, as well as higher education, which is received in colleges and universities. Higher education in Lebanon is considered prestigious and recognized as the best in the Arab world. Lebanese universities train students from other countries in the Middle East. Some universities have more than a century of existence. For example, the American University of Beirut has existed since 1866. According to the Ministry of Finance, 791.926 billion Lebanese pounds were allocated for education in the 2002 budget. Lebanon is considered a recognized scientific center in the Middle East. To coordinate scientific activity in Lebanese universities, the National Lebanese Council for Scientific Research was established in 1962.
Traditional and contemporary art live side by side in Lebanon. There are 5 festivals in the country. The festival in Beirut is dedicated to classical music and opera. The Beit ed-Din festival brings together opera, ballet, jazz, contemporary and religious music. Folklore is presented at the festival in Tire and Baalbek. Under the auspices of UNESCO, the Byblos Festival is held, where you can see folk art from around the world and listen to classical music. In Beirut, there are theaters of different directions: from musicals to classical European ballet.