According to historyaah, the first Lao state of Lan Sang Hom Khao (Lan Sang) was established in 1353 AD. Fa Ngum, who became its first king. In the beginning. 18th century it broke up into three independent kingdoms – Luang Prabang, Vientiane and Champasak, constantly at war with strong neighbors – Siam, Burma, China and Daiviet and to the con. 19th century fell under their vassalage. In 1893, France captured the Laotian territories along the left, and in 1904, along the right bank of the Mekong, including them in the Indochinese Union as its autonomous protectorate. Throughout the colonial period, protests by the population against the French continued (one of them lasted more than 30 years); all R. 1930s they merged with the struggle of the peoples of Vietnam and Cambodia, led by the Communist Party of Indochina. From its bowels came the People’s Revolutionary Party of Laos – NRPL (K. Phomvihan was its permanent leader), leading the national liberation movement in her country. In 1941-45 it was occupied by Japan. Taking advantage of her capitulation, the patriotic forces, united in the Lao Issara (Free Laos) organization, proclaimed the independence of Laos on October 12, 1945, called Pathet Lao (Lao Country).
In the spring of 1946, France, with outside support and local reaction, brought in its troops and unleashed extensive military operations against the patriots, which marked the beginning of the 30-year “dirty” Indochinese war. In 1949, the Lao Issara split, which weakened the national liberation movement; the actual dominance of the metropolis was restored, the country was formally recognized as limited autonomy, preserved within the framework of the Indochinese Federation and the French Union. 1950 – the beginning of a new upsurge in the popular struggle for independence under the leadership of the united national Laos Liberation Front – “Neo Lao Itsala” (FOL), which created a government of resistance, presented the “Program of the struggle for independence, national unity, peace, democracy and social progress”, under control which already contained all the northern and part of the southern liberated provinces; the rest were controlled by the Vientiane royal government, morally and materially supported by the Western powers. In January 1956, the FOL, reorganized into the Patriotic Front of Laos – PFL (Suphanouvong was the chairman), led the struggle of the Lao people against the colonial troops maintained by France and the United States. The decisions of the international Geneva agreements of 1954 and 1962 on the cessation of hostilities in Laos, the recognition of it as an independent sovereign state with a single territory and the legal status of the Pathet Lao national liberation forces was not carried out by either the Vientiane regime or any of the Western powers; the political settlement was finally thwarted in May 1964 due to the massive bombing of the Pathet Lao areas by American aircraft.
Armed confrontation in Laos in the middle. 1960s turned into a civil war. It was ended by negotiations initiated in October 1972 at the initiative of the PFL with the Vientiane government, which ended in February 1973, following the conclusion of the Paris Agreement on ending the war and restoring peace in Vietnam, the signing of the Vientiane “Agreement on restoring peace and achieving national accord in Laos”. See ehistorylib for more about Laos history.
From April 1974, the country began to be governed by the Provisional Government of National Unity (VPNU) and the National Political Coalition Council (NPCC), created on the basis of parity representation of both sides. In 1974–75 the revolutionary forces of Laos intensified their struggle to win over the masses of the people to their side and to abolish the monarchy. In the summer of 1975, as a result of general elections, all local government bodies were replaced by People’s Revolutionary Committees, parties and organizations that were not part of the PFL, led by the NRPL, which came out of hiding in October of the same year, were disbanded. At the request of numerous participants in peaceful demonstrations and rallies, the National Congress of People’s Representatives, delegated from all over the country, was held on December 1–2, 1975.
By decisions of the congress, which accepted the voluntary abdication of the king, the monarchy was abolished, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (LPR) was established with a new state emblem, flag and anthem; Lao was recognized as the national and official language. The “Program of Action of the Government of the Lao PDR”, the structure of the latter and its composition was adopted. One of the tasks of the “Program” was proclaimed the restoration and development of the national economy and the creation of the material and technical base of socialism. Sufanuvong was appointed President of the Republic, he was also the Chairman of the established Supreme People’s Assembly; Prime Minister – Secretary General of the NRPL K. Fomvikhan. On August 14, 1991, the Constitution of the Lao PDR was adopted. In 1982, 1986, 1991, 1996 and 2001, the III-VII congresses of the NRPL were held,
Science and culture of Laos
In the Lao PDR, the French system of education has been replaced by national programs with instruction in the native language; modernization is carried out with the help of international partners, including UNESCO. There are pre-school (nurseries, kindergartens), school (11-year-old), vocational education and higher education (institutes, universities); there are private and public educational institutions and several theological seminaries; special courses are organized for different age groups in order to eliminate mass illiteracy. In the Lao PDR, according to the Constitution, all citizens have the right to education.
The ancient traditions of the spiritual life of numerous ethnic groups of Laos, their social structure and religious beliefs have become the basis of the country’s culture. Monuments of antiquity – monasteries (vats) and other masterpieces of national architecture, manuscripts on palm leaves; samples of folk traditional arts and crafts – weaving, enamel production, woodworking, precious stones, metal – are exported abroad. Literature is represented by both written (secular, religious) works and folklore oral art (tales, myths, songs); now dominated by fiction and versification.