According to historyaah, the Kirghiz ethnos was known in Central Asia as early as the 1st millennium BC. By the 2nd-5th centuries AD nomads who lived in the north of present-day Kyrgyzstan formed powerful tribal unions, southern regions with a settled population in the 2nd century BC. BC—4th c. AD were part of the Parkan state, in the Kushan kingdom. In the 6th-12th centuries. Kyrgyzstan was part of the Western Turkic Khaganate, the states of the Turks, Karluks, and Karakhanids. In the 13th – 1st floor. 16th century the transition under the rule of the Tatar-Mongols, Oirats slowed down the development of settled agriculture, the growth of cities. But the Kyrgyz managed to maintain their ethnic independence. In the 2nd floor. 15th c. the Kirghiz nationality has basically developed. In the 1st third of the 19th century. Kyrgyzstan was conquered by the Kokand khans, who faced serious resistance from the population. By 1863, northern Kyrgyzstan mostly voluntarily became part of the Russian Empire.
Joining the Russian Empire, which accelerated the development of productive forces, at the same time led to an increase in colonial oppression, accompanied by an increase in protest actions by the masses. The most serious was the Central Asian uprising of 1916, which was brutally suppressed by the authorities.
Soviet power was established in Kirghizia in November 1917-June 1918, and a land and water reform was carried out in 1921-22. On October 14, 1924, the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Region was formed as part of the RSFSR (since May 25, 1925, Kirghiz), transformed on February 1, 1926 into the Kirghiz Autonomous Republic as part of the RSFSR. Since December 5, 1936 – the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic within the USSR.
In October 1990, the Supreme Council of Kyrgyzstan decided to rename the Kyrgyz SSR into the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, on December 15, 1990 it adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, and on August 31, 1991, the Declaration of Independence of Kyrgyzstan. On May 5, 1993, the official name of the Kyrgyz Republic was approved, and its new Constitution was adopted. See ehistorylib for more about Kyrgyzstan history.
Science and culture of Kyrgyzstan
The basis of the education system in Kyrgyzstan is daytime general education schools and higher educational institutions. In 2002, there were 2.1 thousand day general education schools, incl. 113 gymnasiums, 50 lyceums, which significantly exceeded the level of 1991. The number of higher educational institutions over the years has grown from 12 to 46. Along with the state, private and private-public schools and lyceums have been opened, incl. 12 Kyrgyz-Turkish lyceums. On the basis of interstate funding, the Kyrgyz-Russian (Slavonic) and Kyrgyz-Turkish universities, the Kyrgyz-American faculty of the International University operate. In 2002, there were 1,167,000 students in general education day schools and 199,100 in universities. Most of the schools are computerized.
By the number of students per 10 thousand people. (397) Kyrgyzstan is ahead of many developed countries. More than 75% of students of state universities study on a paid basis. The program “Personnel of the 21st century” contributes to the improvement of the efficiency and quality of education.
The urgent task is to preserve the scientific and technical potential and adapt it to the market. The number of specialists conducting research in 2001 was 2.3 thousand people, i.е. 33.8% of the 1991 level. More than 2/3 of them are people aged 40 and over. In the total amount of R&D expenditures, the share of fundamental research for 1991-2001 decreased from 28 to 20%. These studies are carried out mainly in the system of the Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyzstan, which includes approx. 20 scientific institutions. ANC participates in the work of the International Association of Academies of Sciences of the CIS countries.
Ancient monuments preserved on the territory of Kyrgyzstan – rock carvings in the Saimaly-Tash tract, Burana tower, Uzgen mausoleums, etc. – are an integral part of world culture, as is the folk epic Manas, the 1000th anniversary of which was celebrated in 1995 by decision of the UN ECOSOC.
There are 15 professional theaters in Kyrgyzstan, incl. an academic opera and ballet theater in Bishkek, 40 museums, a film studio, 300 pay-per-view film installations, 1,000 mass libraries, and 700 club institutions. Ch. Aitmatov’s works gained world fame. Musical culture is rooted in the work of akyns, whose brightest representative is Toktogul Satylganov (1864-1933).