Until 1918, according to historyaah, the territory of modern Jordan was part of the Ottoman Empire. After the 1st World War and the collapse of the empire in 1921, the League of Nations transferred the mandate to govern Jordan to Great Britain. The British mandated territories were divided into two parts – the West Bank of the Jordan River went to Palestine, the East – to Transjordan.
In 1946, under an agreement with Great Britain, Transjordan gained independence, and Emir Abdullah bin Hussein was proclaimed king of the country. After the formation of the State of Israel in 1948, parts of the Jordanian army occupied the West Bank of the Jordan River and Jerusalem. In 1949, the country’s name was changed to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, and Parliament approved the annexation of the West Bank. Its inhabitants became citizens of Jordan and received the right to be represented in Parliament.
In 1953, King Hussein I ascended the throne. In 1955, Jordan, along with Turkey, Iran and Iraq, joined the pro-Western Baghdad Pact. This caused protests in the country and increased tensions with Egypt, whose leader – Gamal Abdel Nasser – was a supporter of anti-imperialist ideology. Differences between the king and internal opposition forces on foreign policy issues escalated. In April 1957, a state of emergency was introduced in Jordan, the activities of the National Assembly were suspended, and political parties were dissolved.
In 1965, the actions of the Palestinian Fatah organization against Israel provoked retaliatory strikes on Jordanian territory. In 1966, the activity of the Palestine Liberation Organization in the country was banned.
In May 1967, a mutual defense treaty was concluded between Jordan and Egypt. After the six-day Arab-Israeli war of 1967, the West Bank of the Jordan River and East Jerusalem were occupied by Israel. See ehistorylib for more about Jordan history.
Since 1975, fearing an Israeli attack, Jordan has been moving closer to Syria. In 1978, the Jordanian leadership refused to recognize the Camp David Accords because they did not provide for the liberation of the Palestinian territories occupied by Israel, and in 1979 they condemned the separate treaty between Israel and Egypt.
Jordan remained neutral during the Gulf War of 1990-91. Military operations in the region caused great economic damage to the country.
In 1988, taking into account the views of the leaders of the Arab countries on the preparation of conditions for the creation of an independent Palestinian state, Jordan abandoned its claims to the West Bank.
From the beginning 1990s In Jordan, there has been a process of economic and political stabilization. Restrictions on freedom of the press and the activities of political parties were lifted. At the initiative of King Hussein, the leaders of political movements signed the National Charter, which proclaimed the basic principles of the political structure of the country – democracy, pluralism and the legitimacy of royal power. In 1993 multi-party parliamentary elections were held.
After the signing in 1993 by Israel and the PLO of the Declaration of Principles – the document on the formation of the Palestinian Authority, in 1994 a peace treaty was concluded between Israel and Jordan.
In 1999, instead of the deceased King Hussein I, his son Abdullah bin Hussein II ascended the throne, continuing the policy of democratization of society. Measures are being taken in the country against radical Islamist groups – offices of the Hamas movement were closed, several members of Al-Qaeda were repressed. During the Anglo-American military operations against Iraq, Jordan maintained a position of neutrality.
Science and culture of Jordan
Jordan has a relatively well developed education system. The literacy rate of the population over 15 years old is 90.2% (the average for the Middle East and North Africa region is 85.2%). Primary and secondary education is free, children under the age of 15 are required to attend school. More than 95% of children are covered by school education. The country has approx. 2790 public and 1500 private schools. Higher education can be obtained at 19 universities and higher educational institutions, the largest of which are located in Amman, Yarmuk, Irbid.
In 1970, the Royal Scientific Society was founded, which includes a number of departments for information technology, environmental protection, engineering, etc. Amman is home to the Jordanian National Gallery of Fine Arts, which displays works by contemporary Arab and Jordanian artists, archaeological and folklore museums. Small archaeological museums are also located in Petra and Jerash.
Of the arts in Jordan, literature, in particular poetry, received the greatest development. The main themes of poetic works are the description of human feelings and emotions, in the 2nd floor. 20th century political and social themes also began to spread. The most famous poets: Mustafa at-Tell, Mustafa al-Kailani, Fadwa Tukan, Mohammed al-Jundi. Prose works began to appear after the 2nd World War and dealt primarily with political issues. King Abdullah I and King Hussein II contributed to the development of Jordanian literature by publishing memoirs and autobiographical books. Modern prose writers include Asma Tubi, Amin Malkhas, the collector of Bedouin folklore Ruks Uzaizi, the novelist and literary critic Isa Nauri, and the historian and writer Arif al-Arif.
Western classical music is not widely practiced in Jordan. Traditional music has several directions: hajin music originating from Bedouin songs, which serves as an accompaniment for shruka dances, improvisation on various musical instruments “taksim”. The traditional dances of Jordan are predominantly of foreign origin – Lebanese, Iraqi or Turkish.
Folk crafts are widely developed – the manufacture of carpets, silver and ceramic products, embroidery.
Jordan has five daily newspapers with a total circulation of 230,000, incl. one, The Jordan Times, is in English. In addition, 6 newspapers and magazines are published weekly or irregularly in Arabic.