History of Ireland

By | April 28, 2022

According to historyaah, the island position and proximity to Britain largely determined the history of Ireland. The island has been inhabited for approximately 7 thousand years.

The Mesolithic culture was brought with them by hunters from Britain, who were the first settlers on the island. Behind them, in the 3rd millennium BC, came the farmers and pastoralists of the Neolithic era. A wave of Celtic invasions swept the island in the 6th century. BC. The country was fragmented into more than 150 kingdoms, and although the Celts failed to unite Ireland politically, they laid the foundations of linguistic and cultural unity.

The introduction of Christianity in the 5th c. associated with the name of St. Patrick. Ireland did not know the barbarian invasions of the early Middle Ages, and this is partly why the 6th and 7th centuries. were marked by the flourishing of learning, art and culture, the centers of which were concentrated in monasteries.

In the 9th-10th centuries. the country was subjected to regular Viking raids, which, due to its fragmentation, could not resist. The Vikings imposed tribute throughout Ireland, but at the same time, being engaged in trade, they contributed to the development of urban life in Dublin, Cork and Waterford. The end of the domination of the Vikings was put by the victory of the High King (“Ardriag”) Brian Boru at Clontarf in 1014, but the emerging trend towards the creation of a single state was stopped in 1168 by the invasion of the “Normans” – English barons, descendants of the northern French knights. It was they who placed almost 3/4 of Ireland under the political control of the English crown and for 400 years planted their own culture, introducing their own laws and institutions of power (including Parliament). 1297 was marked by the opening of the session of the first Irish Parliament in Dublin. In 1315, Ireland was occupied by the Scots and Edward the Bruce proclaimed himself king, but soon died. In 1348, approx. 1/3 of the population of the island. In 1541, Henry VIII of England proclaimed himself King of Ireland. Since that time, the erosion of the Irish clan system has accelerated sharply. The religious changes that took place in England were reflected in Ireland, and although the descendants of the Normans, called the “old Englishmen”, did not accept the Protestant Reformation, the Irish Anglican Church was formed in the country. See ehistorylib for more about Ireland history.

Revolts broke out in the country more than once, which had a national and religious background, but they all ended in defeat, and in 1603 the Gaelic resistance was finally broken, and the English crown for the first time managed to politically unite all of Ireland.

Another uprising in 1649 ended with the complete defeat of the Irish by the troops of Oliver Cromwell and massive land confiscations. In 1688, most of the Irish Catholics came out in support of the deposed English Catholic King James II, but they were defeated at the Battle of the Boyne (1690). Protestants belonging to the Anglican Church monopolized power and land ownership in the country.

In 1798, under the influence of the French Revolution, a new uprising broke out in Ireland, led by Wolf Tone, aimed at creating an independent republic. It was suppressed and Ireland lost the remnants of political autonomy.

In con. 1840s As a result of a poor potato harvest, famine struck Ireland: in 1846–56, the population of the country decreased from 8 to 6 million people. (1 million people died and 1 million people emigrated). The Great Famine had significant political implications.

In 1921, the Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed, according to which 6 counties of northeastern Ulster were constituted as Northern Ireland, and the remaining 26 counties formed the Irish Free State with its capital in Dublin, which was part of the British Empire as a dominion. The first government of the new state was headed by William Cosgrave. In 1937 a new constitution was adopted.

Ireland remained neutral during World War II.

In 1948, the fully independent Republic of Ireland was proclaimed.

History of Ireland