According to historyaah, the oldest state formations on the territory of Iran appeared in the beginning. 3 thousand BC In the 6th c. BC. the Achaemenid Empire arose, which fell as a result of the conquest of Alexander the Great. In the 7th century Iran was conquered by the Arabs, Zoroastrianism was replaced by Islam. Under the Safavids, Shiism became the state religion. The modern borders of Iran were formed during the period of the Qajar dynasty (1796-1925). According to the Gulistan (1813) and Turkmanchay (1928) treaties, Dagestan, Georgia, Abkhazia, Karabakh, the khanates of Northern Azerbaijan and Eastern Armenia were ceded to Russia, and the border was established along the Araks River. In con. 19—early 20th century Iran has become the scene of fierce rivalry between Britain and Russia, dividing Iran into spheres of influence. Britain and Russia secured a number of concessions, of which the most important was the Anglo-Iranian oil concession.
In 1906–11, a constitutional movement unfolded in Iran, which resulted in the adoption of the country’s Basic Law. During World War I, Iran declared neutrality, but was occupied by Russian, British and Turkish troops. After the October Revolution, Russia announced the annulment of all unequal treaties, the rejection of concessions and debts. On February 26, 1921, an agreement was concluded that is in force to this day.
As a result of a military coup on February 21, 1921, Reza Khan concentrated power in his hands, who in 1925 was proclaimed the new shah of the country, becoming the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty. During his reign (1925-41), politically, Iran represented the personal dictatorship of the Shah; economically, state capitalism with almost comprehensive state regulation and a strong public sector.
In 1941, British and Soviet troops were introduced into Iran, Reza Shah abdicated in favor of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. In con. 1945 autonomous republics were proclaimed in Azerbaijan and Kurdistan, but after the withdrawal of Soviet troops to the end. 1946 autonomies were liquidated. In the beginning. 1950s A movement began to nationalize the oil industry, which was in the hands of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. The leader of the movement was M. Mosaddeq, who headed the government in 1951, when the Majlis adopted a law on the nationalization of the oil industry. In 1953, as a result of a military coup, the government of Mosaddeq was removed from power. An international oil consortium (IOC) was created, whose members were 8 largest oil companies in the world. Martial law after the coup was only lifted in 1957, when plans for reforms began to be developed, called the “white revolution”. As a result of the reforms initiated by the shah, sharecropping and large landownership were abolished, and a wide network of cooperatives was created. Industrialization was carried out on the basis of the latest Western technologies and the use of foreign capital. Iran’s GDP Growth Rates in 1960-70s reached 10-11%. The creation of new industries was carried out mainly within the public sector, the economic positions of the highest bureaucracy, primarily the Shah’s family, were strengthened. Politically, the Shah’s personal dictatorship was intensified. See ehistorylib for more about Iran history.To year of 1970s the regime began to lose economic dynamics and social attractiveness; on February 11, 1979, as a result of an armed uprising, power in the country passed into the hands of the Islamic Revolutionary Council. As a result of a referendum on April 1, 1979, Iran was declared an Islamic republic, which was enshrined in the Constitution adopted in December 1979. The clergy headed by Ayatollah Khomeini came to power in Iran. The revolution of 1979 changed the state system, made significant adjustments to life, culture, and the economy. Relations with developed countries were sharply limited, a ban was introduced on the use of foreign capital and foreign specialists. In November 1979, the US embassy in Tehran was seized, and American diplomats were held hostage for 444 days. The eight-year war with Iraq (1980-88) had a huge impact on the formation of politics, especially economics. In fact, an Islamic dictatorship was established, especially after the removal from power of Iran’s first secular president, Abolhasan Banisadr, injuries and deaths in the summer of 1981 as a result of terrorist attacks by a number of prominent Islamic and state leaders, incl. Rajai, who became president after Banisadr, prime minister of Bahonar. All parties were closed, except for the party of the clergy created in 1979 – the Party of the Islamic Republic. The Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC), created after the revolution, became the military support of the clergy. The Cultural Revolution began, universities were closed (1980-83). The economic system created by the regime, which nationalized the Shah’s, foreign, large property, banks and insurance companies, was called the “touhid economy” and was a rigidly centralized model that had a distributive character. At the end of the war and after the death of Khomeini (June 4, 1989), liberalization of economic and political life began in the country. Economic liberalization is associated with the activities of the government of Ali Akbar Rafsanjani, who was president in 1989-97, and political liberalization is associated with the activities of Mohammad Khatami, who has been the president of Iran since 1997. Iran began to evolve towards the creation of a “civil society”, ensuring the freedom of the parties and the press, pursuing a policy of establishing links with the world community. President Khatami put forward the concept of “dialogue of civilizations”. However, the reformist wing of the political leadership is opposed by conservatives who are concentrated mainly in the Islamic structures of state power, retaining strong political and economic influence. This confrontation slows down the evolution of the regime.