At the turn of the 1st millennium BC. and 1st millennium AD in Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan, the first state formations appeared. Later, large states arose. In Sumatra in the 7th – 8th centuries. – Principality of Srivijaya, conquered Malaya, part of Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan. The heyday of the Sumatran maritime empire was in the 9th-10th centuries.
In Java, according to historyaah, an irrigational type of state formation was formed. The state of Mataram, already known in the 8th century, was fought over by Hindu and Buddhist dynasties. The Shailendra Buddhist dynasty, whose monument of rule is the Borobudur temple, in 832 ceded power to the Hindu Sanjai dynasty, under which the Prambanan complex of Shaivist temples was built.
In the 11th-15th centuries. on the basis of the consolidation of the Javanese principalities, the Majapahit empire was created. In the unification of the empire, the chief minister, Gajah Mada, played a prominent role. The penetration of Islam and the strengthening of city-states led to the fall of the despotic empire in 1520. In the 15th and 16th centuries. Islamic sultanates are formed in Sulawesi, in Ternate and Tidore in the Moluccas. In the 16th century Java had two centralized states – Bantam and Mataram. In the 16th and 17th centuries The Islamic state of Aceh led an aggressive policy in Sumatra.
The first Portuguese conquistadors appeared in the archipelago in 1511. Then followed the Spaniards, the British and the Dutch. In 1602, the East India Company was established, which established a monopoly on the trade in spices and colonial goods. In the 18th century The Netherlands lost its position as the dominant colonial power. In 1799 the company went bankrupt, its debts and property passed to the Dutch state. After the defeat of Holland in the Anglo-French wars, the English governor T. Stanford Raffles temporarily ruled in the Netherlands Indies. He carried out reforms that promoted the development of trade and the expansion of monetary relations. Under the treaty of 1814, their colonial possessions were returned to the Netherlands. In the beginning. 1830s a system of forced cultures was introduced. The heaviest colonial oppression of the system caused uprisings. In 1824–37, the “Padri War” was waged in Sumatra. In 1874-1913 the Great Aceh defended freedom. Suppressing resistance, concluding unequal treaties, the Netherlands established its authority over a territory with a total area of 1.9 million km2, which was almost 60 times the territory of the metropolis. The number of the conquered population amounted to 37.7 million people. – 6 times the population of Holland.
After the abolition of the system of forced crops and the adoption of the Agrarian Law in 1870, an “open door” policy began to be pursued. The strengthening of colonial and feudal oppression, the sharp impoverishment of the bulk of the population contributed to the emergence of the national liberation movement. In an attempt to change the methods of government, the Netherlands introduced an “ethical course” in 1901 that abolished a number of duties and opened up some access to education. See ehistorylib for more about Indonesia history.
In 1916, the 1st Congress of Sarekat Islam put forward the slogan of granting self-government to the Netherlands Indies. In 1920, the Communist Party of Indonesia (CPI) was created. The colonial administration was forced to enfranchise the local population and establish a quasi-parliament, the Volksraad. In 1926, an anti-colonial uprising was crushed in Java and Sumatra. The KPI was destroyed. In 1927 Sukarno, Sartono, and others created the National Party of Indonesia (NPI). At the National Youth Congress in 1928, the slogan was put forward: “One country, one nation, one language – Indonesian.” In the 1930s the process of creating nationalist parties continued. Before the outbreak of World War II, the leading trend was the desire to achieve unity among the various parties and their mass organizations in the struggle for liberation from colonial oppression.
The Japanese occupation (1942–45) led to the establishment of a harsh military dictatorship.
After the defeat of the Kwantung Army by the Soviet troops, Japan was on the verge of defeat. A revolutionary situation has developed in Indonesia. On August 17, 1945, Sukarno declared the independence of the Republic of Indonesia. The declaration on the birth of a new state was signed by Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who became its president and vice president.
Dutch attempts to regain colonial possessions led to an anti-colonial war. Indonesia’s upholding of independence was supported by the world community. The UN Security Council, on the initiative of the Soviet and Ukrainian delegations, included the Indonesian question on the agenda. At the Round Table Conference (RCC) in 1949, an agreement was signed on the transfer of sovereignty over the entire territory (except West Irian) to the Republic of the United States of Indonesia. By August 1950, the creation of the unitary Republic of Indonesia was completed, with Sukarno as president, M. Hatta as vice president, and a provisional constitution adopted. In 1954 the government of the republic terminated the Netherlands-Indonesian union. In 1954 there was an exchange of embassies with the USSR. The Bandung Conference was held in 1955.
In September 1955, the first parliamentary elections and elections to the Constituent Assembly were held. They were won by NPI, Mashumi, Nahdatul Ulama (NU) and KPI. In 1956 I. terminated the KKS agreements.
In 1956–57 there were attempts at a coup d’état, which were supported from outside. In West Java, the insurrectionary movement of Darul Islam, which began in 1948, became more active. His goal was to create a Sharia state. In 1958, his nationalist wing launched an all-out struggle (Permesta) in North Sulawesi. A republic was proclaimed in the Malukkahs, and a rebel government was formed in North Sumatra (PRRI). There was a threat to the integrity of the state.
In February 1957, Sukarno came up with the concept of guided democracy, which was based on the idea of strengthening national unity and maintaining the integrity of the state. The government became accountable to the president, not to parliament. A Provisional National Advisory Council (ANCC) was created, which included representatives of the provinces and functional groups, incl. military. The composition of the government and the VNKK was determined by the president.
In September 1957, the commanders of the Sumatran military districts demanded the decentralization of government. In March-July 1958, the PRRI-Permesta rebellions were largely suppressed. In July 1959, Sukarno put the Constitution of 1945 into effect by presidential decree and abolished the Constituent Assembly.
In August 1960, the highest organ of power, the Provisional People’s Consultative Congress (VNKK), was formed, which has the right to elect a president and vice president and once every five years to approve the main directions of state policy.
In 1961, Sukarno proclaimed the task of reuniting West Irian with the Republic of Indonesia. The Soviet Union supported Indonesia and provided it with military assistance, which made it possible to avoid direct military clashes with the Netherlands. In May 1961, the UN adopted a plan to transfer power to Holland under the auspices of a UN committee, and from May 1, 1963, to the administration of Indonesia. The task of the Indonesian revolution – the achievement of independence throughout the country – was solved.
The Sukarno government opposed the unification of Malaya, Sarawak, Sabah and the creation of the Federation of Malaysia. It severed diplomatic relations with Malaysia and declared a confrontation with it in September 1963. The growing internal political tension and opposition of various political forces in Indonesia led to the tragic events of September 30, 1965, followed by mass repressions against members of the CPI and its organizations, as well as a campaign to overthrow Sukarno from the presidency. On March 11, 1966, the first president of Indonesia issued an order transferring powers to Suharto. On March 12, the activities of the KPI were banned. In June-July 1966, a session of the VNKK was held, which approved Suharto as acting. president. In March 1968, the GNKK of the renewed composition elected Suharto as president. The process of legitimate approval of the new order regime,
Elections to parliament, the People’s Consultative Congress (PCC), and local self-government bodies were held in July 1971. The new party formation—Golkar and the army faction—received 73% of all mandates in parliament. In 1972–73, on the basis of a merger of parties, a new party system was created, which consisted of the Unity and Development Party (PER), the Democratic Party of Indonesia (DPI), and Golkar. In March 1973, at the 5th session of the NCC, Suharto was elected president, which meant the legitimate approval of the authoritarian regime of the new order, which, with a certain evolution, lasted 32 years. At the session of the NCC in March 1998, Suharto was elected to the 7th term of the presidency. However, the financial and structural crises sharply exacerbated the socio-economic and political contradictions in the country, which forced Suharto to step down from the presidency in May 1998. According to the Constitution of 1945, Vice-President B.Yu. Habibi, who proclaimed the “era of reform”.
After repeated attempts to suppress the speeches of the inhabitants of East Timor demanding independence, a referendum was held, the results of which predetermined the withdrawal of the province from Indonesia.
In February 1999, the NCC approved a law allowing the creation of new political parties, a law on general elections, a law on the composition and relationship between the NCC and the People’s Representative Council (SNR). He reduced the faction of the army in the highest state bodies, but left the army with a dual function (military and socio-political) for several years. These laws, as well as other legislative acts (on human rights, the procedure for making additions and amendments to the Constitution, changing the relationship between the center and the regions) predetermined the beginning of the reform of the entire political system and the renewal of state law. In May 1999 parliamentary elections were held. Abdurrahman Wahid was elected to the presidency at the meeting of the NCC, and Megawati Sukarnoputri became the vice president. The political crisis, predetermined by disagreements between the legislative and executive authorities, and increased centrifugal tendencies led to the convening of a special session of the NCC in July 2001, which confirmed Megawati Sukarnoputri as the fifth President of Indonesia and Hamza Haz as Vice President. Her government of mutual cooperation continued to reform the political and state structure. The main tasks were to preserve the integrity of the state, achieve unity and restore the progressive development of the country.