History of India

By | April 28, 2022

According to historyaah, the history of India begins with the Harappan civilization 3 – ser. 2 thousand BC, which existed in the valley of the Indus River. All R. 2 thousand BC Aryans arrived in India. In the 6th-5th centuries. BC. in northern India, states appeared with monarchical and republican forms of government – Magadha, Koshala, Avanti. With the era of the campaign of Alexander the Great in Punjab in 327 BC. the names of Chandragupta (317-293 BC) and Ashoka (273-32 BC) are connected, the emperors of the Mauryan dynasty, who united almost all of continental India. Then the caste system was formed in the country.

In the 1st-2nd centuries. AD northern India was part of the Kushan Empire, in the 4th-5th centuries. to the Gupta empire. The time of the Guptas was marked by the flourishing of classical culture and art and became known as the “golden age”. If the state religion of the Mauryas was Buddhism, then the Guptas were adherents of Hinduism. At the same time, the states of Chola, Pandya and Chera existed in the south, competing with each other. With the collapse of the first medieval states, a period of fragmentation and invasions of Muslim feudal lords from Central Asia and Afghanistan (Mahmud Gaznevi, Aibek, Tamerlane, and others) began. Almost all of them remained in Hindustan, and some even managed to establish empires – the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526) and the Mughal Empire (1526-1707). The latter is considered the most powerful and organized state of pre-colonial India. The founder of the Mughal Empire was Babur (1525-30), former ruler of Fergana. It reached its peak under Padishah Akbar (1556-1605), who subjugated all the northern and central regions. Under his grandson Shah Jahan (1628-58) and great-grandson Aurangzeb (1658-1707), military expeditions were equipped to the south. In response to the oppression of the Gentiles, uprisings rose up in different parts of the empire. The largest was the Maratha movement under the leadership of Shivaji, which led to the creation of an independent Maratha state in the west of the country. In 1498, Vasco da Gama paved the way to India from Europe. The Battle of Plassey in 1757, in which the British defeated the Nawab of Bengal, marked the beginning of British colonial rule. The history of the next 100 years was marked by the long struggle of the peoples of India for liberation from colonial oppression. The most stubborn of these was the uprising of the sepoys in 1857–59. The formation and development of the national liberation movement was associated with the activities of the Indian National Congress (INC). On December 28, 1885, 72 representatives of national public organizations gathered at a college in Bombay. They called their meeting the congress and declared its purpose “to strengthen the feelings of national unity” and “the authoritative expression of the opinions of the educated classes.” See ehistorylib for more about India history.

The INC was founded by D. Naoroji (1825-1917), M. G. Ranede (1842-1901) and S. Banerji (1844-1906). From the beginning 20th century a new ideological and political direction arose in the Congress. It was headed by B. G. Tilak (1856-1920), L. L. Rai (1856-1928) and B. Ch. Pal (1858-1932). They advocated the involvement of the masses in the national movement against the colonial authorities, up to the creation of a republic. Demonstrations took place in the cities for the first time, large rallies gathered. Under these conditions, the authorities relied on inciting Hindu-Muslim hatred. In December 1906, with the assistance of the authorities, an all-India political organization, the Muslim League (ML), was established. A new upsurge in the liberation movement falls on the beginning. 1920s At this time, M.K. Gandhi (1869-1948) came to the leadership of the INC. He began his political activities in South Africa, where he led non-violent protests of Indians against racial discrimination laws. In 1919 he joined the Congress, which turned from an organization of the “educated classes” into a mass political party. In 1920–22 and 1930–31, campaigns of civil disobedience were carried out by Gandhi and the Congress. They stirred up the country and contributed to the growth of liberation sentiments. In December 1929, the Congress put forward the slogan “Purna Swaraj”, i.e. complete independence. From con. 1920s the role of young leaders J. Nehru and S. Ch. Bos (1897-1945) increased in the INC. During the years of World War II, there was a turn in the tactics of the Congress towards more active forms of action.

In April 1942, Gandhi put forward the slogan “Get out of India!”, which meant the demand for immediate independence. In response, the leaders of the INC were arrested. The repressions of the authorities caused massive spontaneous protests. Indians smashed police stations, destroyed railways, communication lines, bridges. However, the front of the joint struggle was seriously violated. In March 1940, the ML took a course towards the creation of Pakistan, an independent Muslim state within the borders of the areas inhabited by the Muslim majority. After the ML announced the start of “direct action” for the creation of Pakistan, a wave of religious and communal pogroms swept across the country. In this situation, in July 1947, the British Parliament hastily passed the Indian Independence Act. He provided for its partition on the basis of a religious-communal principle and the creation of the dominions of the Indian Union and Pakistan. On August 15, J. Nehru raised the flag of independent India near the Red Fort in Delhi. The constitutional head of the dominion was the governor-general (L. Mountbatten, from June 1948 C. Rajagopalachari). He acted on the basis of the recommendations of the government (Prime Minister J. Nehru), which had the confidence of the Constituent Assembly. It received the right to develop and adopt the Constitution and the abolition of the laws of the British Parliament. During the period of the dominion, the consequences of partition were overcome, a state administration apparatus was created, and most of the principalities became part of the Indian Union. An acute situation developed in Kashmir, where detachments of the Pashtun tribes of Pakistan entered in October 1947. In response, the Maharaja announced the accession of the principality to the Indian Union.

To the beginning In 1949, under the auspices of the UN, a ceasefire line was established in the former principality, which consolidated the positions of the parties and led to the division of Kashmir. As a result, the “Kashmir issue” remains an unhealed wound in Indian-Pakistani relations. On November 26, 1950, the Constituent Assembly adopted the Basic Law of the country. The constitution came into force on January 26, 1950. This date is celebrated in India as Republic Day. In 1954 India annexed the French colony of Pondicherry, and in 1961 the Portuguese colonies of Daman and Diu. In 1956, a law was passed on the administrative-territorial division of the country and 14 states were created on an ethno-linguistic basis. In 2000, new states appeared on the map of the country – Jharkhand, Uttaranchal and Chhattisgarh. In 1965 and 1971 India was at war with Pakistan. The defeat of Pakistan in 1971 contributed to the formation of Bangladesh. In 1999, a conflict took place between India and Pakistan in the Kargil Dras sector. In 1959 and 1962 there were Indian-Chinese border conflicts. India believes that China is “occupying” 33,000 km2 of its territory. There have been 13 elections to the lower house of the Indian Parliament. In 1950–89, the INC won the elections. Nehru, I. Gandhi and R. Gandhi, the leaders of this party, formed unicameral governments. In 1977-79, the monopoly of the INC was violated by the Janata Party of M. Desai. Since 1989, the country has been ruled by coalitions: the National Front (1989–91), the United Front (1996–98), and the National Democratic Alliance (from 1999 to the present).

History of India