According to historyaah, the UK is a country with a rich history. In the 1st millennium BC. The territory of modern Great Britain was inhabited by the Celts. All R. 1 in. AD The British Isles experienced the invasion of the Romans, and after their departure in the 5th-6th centuries. were conquered by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 5th-11th centuries. include the first beginnings of statehood. The conquest of England by William, Duke of Normandy in 1066 led to the fall of the Anglo-Saxon dynasties and the beginning of the rule of the Norman dynasty (11th-12th centuries). During this period, the process of feudalization, political unification and centralization of state power was completed.
The first noticeable reforms to strengthen royal power were carried out by Henry II of Anjou, the first of the Plantagenet dynasty (12th-14th centuries). In 1215, King John the Landless signed the Magna Carta – a document that for the first time set out the basic principles of governing England and limited the power of the king in favor of chivalry, free peasantry and cities. The reign of the Plantagenets was also marked by the first convocation of Parliament, the accession of Wales. The Hundred Years’ War of 1337–1453 with France led to the loss of territories conquered in that country in the 12th century. See ehistorylib for more about United Kingdom history.
Further expansion of the rights of Parliament occurred under Henry IV – the first of the Lancaster dynasty. The development of commodity-money relations and the struggle of the peasants (the uprising of W. Tyler in 1381 and others) led to the 15th century. to the almost complete elimination of the personal dependence of the peasants. During the War of the Scarlet and White Roses – the war between the Lancasters and Yorks (1455-87), the old feudal nobility was practically destroyed. A new middle and petty nobility, connected with the development of capitalism, the gentry, gradually began to come to power. The Yorks won the war, but they managed to stay on the throne only approx. 20 years. They were replaced by the kings of the Tudor dynasty (15th-17th centuries). Henry VII (1457-1509) laid the foundations of absolutism – the unlimited power of the monarch. During the reign of the next monarch of this dynasty, Henry VIII (1491-1547), the church was reformed: The king broke with the Roman Catholic Church and proclaimed himself head of the Anglican (Protestant) Church. Under the reign of his son Edward VI (1537–53), Protestantism was declared the official religion in England. In 1536 the Act of Union of England and Wales was signed. In the 16th century the process of primitive accumulation of capital unfolded, the basis of which was the dispossession of the peasantry (fencing).
The last of the Tudor line was Elizabeth I (1533-1603). Having no heirs of her own, in 1603 she handed over the throne to the King of Scotland, James I Stuart, the son of Mary Stuart, who became the first king of England and Scotland. During the reign of the Stuart dynasty (17-18 centuries), a war broke out between parliament and the monarch (1642-51). It ended with the execution in 1649 of King Charles I. In 1653–58 Oliver Cromwell ruled the country as Lord Protector. The English bourgeois revolution ensured the establishment of capitalism. In 1660 the monarchy was restored. In con. 17th century political parties took shape—the Tories and the Whigs (in the middle of the 19th century they were transformed into the conservative and liberal parties, respectively). In 1707, Scotland was annexed to the English crown – the Act of Union of England and Scotland was signed.
In the 18th century The Stuarts were replaced by the Hanoverian dynasty. The long war with France for commercial and colonial hegemony ended with the victory of Great Britain. Vast possessions in India and North America were captured. As a result of the War of Independence in North America (1775-83), 13 North American colonies separated from the mother country and formed an independent state – the United States. In 1801 the Act of Union of England and Ireland was signed. Great Britain is the organizer of a coalition against revolutionary and then Napoleonic France. In 1805, the English fleet defeated the Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar, which ensured the long-term dominance of Great Britain at sea. In this battle, the commander of the English fleet, Admiral G. Nelson, one of the outstanding naval commanders of that time, was mortally wounded. In 1815 the Anglo-Dutch troops under the command of A.
In con. 18-1st floor. 19th century the industrial revolution took place. In the 1830s the factory system of production was established. Great Britain becomes the most powerful industrial country in the world, its “workshop”. In the 1830s-50s. the first mass movement of the proletariat, Chartism, unfolded. In 1868, the British Congress of Trade Unions was created. At 19 – beg. 20th century Great Britain was the largest colonial power in the world. It carried out the colonization of Australia and New Zealand, conquered vast territories in Asia and Africa, completed the capture of India and Egypt, waged wars against China and Afghanistan, suppressed the national liberation movement in India (1857–59), the uprisings in Ireland (1848, 1867 and etc.). The strengthening of the liberation movement in the settler colonies forced Great Britain to create dominions (the first was Canada, 1867). Colonial conquests are closely associated with the name of Queen Victoria (1819-1901), the last of the monarchs of the Hanoverian dynasty, who occupied the throne for 64 years. Since 1901, the Windsor dynasty has been in power (until 1917 it was called the Saxe-Coburg dynasty).
Already to the beginning 20th century Great Britain, which made the industrial revolution before others, lost its monopoly. In 1900, it was in second place in terms of industrial production after the United States, and in subsequent decades it shared second or third place with Germany in terms of GDP. The dominant position of the pound sterling in the international monetary system and the country’s position as a world carrier were undermined.
Great Britain played an active role in the creation of the Entente – the union of Great Britain, France and Russia (1904-07) and in the preparation of World War I, as a result of which she received a significant part of the former German possessions in Africa and most of the territories taken from Turkey (Ottoman empire). During the Irish People’s War of Liberation (1919–21), the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 was concluded granting Ireland (with the exception of Northern Ireland, which remained part of Great Britain) the status of a dominion.
In the 1930s Great Britain pursued a policy of “appeasement” of Nazi Germany. The Munich Agreement signed on behalf of Great Britain by Prime Minister N. Chamberlain with A. Hitler and B. Mussolini (September 29-30, 1938) contributed to the outbreak of World War II, which Great Britain entered on September 3, 1939. In May-June 1940 to Great Britain English, parts of the French and Belgian troops, blockaded by the German army in the area of the French city of Dunkirk, were evacuated. On May 10, 1940, W. Churchill headed the government. After the German attack on the USSR, in the face of the immediate threat of the invasion of fascist troops in Great Britain and the continuous bombardment of British cities from the air, it entered into a military alliance with the USSR. Together with the USSR and the USA, Great Britain became one of the main participants in the anti-Hitler coalition. In 1942–43, the British 8th Army, under the command of Field Marshal Montgomery, defeated the Italo-German troops near El Alamein in North Africa. In July-August 1943, Anglo-American troops landed on the island of Sicily. In June-July 1944, British troops, together with American troops, landed in Normandy, which marked the opening of a second front. W. Churchill participated in the conferences of the three heads of powers – victors in World War II: Yalta (February 1945) and Potsdam (July-August 1945); at the end of the Potsdam Conference, he was replaced by the head of the Labor Party, K. Attlee, who won the election. These conferences determined the basic principles of the post-war order of the world.