History of Georgia

By | April 28, 2022

In the 3rd millennium BC. the Kartvelian ethnic group lived on the territory of Georgia with their own languages – Svan, Megrelo-Ghanaian, Kart. Feudal relations become dominant. From the 4th c. Sasanian Iran’s offensive against Kartli intensifies. However, under the leadership of Vakhtang I Gargasal, Iran’s attacks were repulsed. In the 8th-10th centuries. there are large principalities – Kakheti, Hereti, the Abkhazian principality. According to historyaah, the Prince of Abkhazia, Leon II, united all of Western Georgia into one Egris-Abkhazian kingdom with its capital in Kutaisi. Further struggle between the individual principalities in the middle. 10th c. ended with the unification of Georgian lands into a single state headed by Bagration III.

11th-12th centuries – the period of greatest political power and the flourishing of the economy and culture. In the 12th century under Tsar David the Builder (1089-1125), Georgia liberated a significant part of Transcaucasia. During the reign of George III (1156-84) and Tamara (1184-1213), the influence of Georgia spread to the North Caucasus and Eastern Transcaucasia, Iranian Azerbaijan, Armenia and the southwestern Black Sea region. In the 12th century close cultural, economic and political relations are established between Kievan Rus, in 1185 the Ukrainian prince Yuri and the Georgian queen Tamara entered into marriage.

In the 12th century Georgia’s economy and culture reached a high level of development. The creation of Sh. Rustaveli’s work “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” dates back to this time. In the 13th century Georgia was conquered by the Mongol-Tatars, who caused great damage to its political unity and economy. In the 15th century Georgia broke up into independent kingdoms – Kartli, Kakheti, Imereti. By the 16th century in the Imereti kingdom,
independent principalities emerged – Megrelian, Gurian, at the beginning of the 17th century. – Abkhazia. In the 16th-18th centuries Georgia has become the arena of the struggle between Iran and Turkey for dominance in the Transcaucasus. See ehistorylib for more about Georgia history.

Particularly devastating were the campaigns of the troops of Shah Abbas I in Kartli and Kakheti. In 1659 an uprising broke out against the Iranians, led by G. Saakadze. The rejection by the Turks by the 16th-17th centuries represented a huge loss for Georgia. Samtskhe-Saatobago with Adzharia and Loziki, where the policy of Turkification was carried out.

Strengthening Russian-Georgian relations in the 2nd half. 18th century led to the conclusion in 1783 of the Treaty of St. George between Russia and the Kartli-Kakheti kingdom.

In the 19th century, Western Georgia was also included in the Russian Empire (1803–64). The accession of Georgia to Russia was of progressive importance. It was the only way to free Georgia from the dominance of Turkey and Iran. The colonial policy of tsarism and the heavy oppression of serfdom caused mass peasant uprisings.

In the 60-90s. characterized by the development of capitalism. During these years, the construction of the Transcaucasian railway was carried out, traffic was opened between Tbilisi and
Poti, Tbilisi-Baku. Factories and factories appear. At the same time, a national liberation movement was developing (leaders I. G. Chavchavadze, A. R. Tsereteli
, and others), and strikes were taking place (the Batumi strike of 1902).

In 1918 Georgia declared independence. German-Turkish troops entered the country. On May 7, 1920, a peace treaty was signed between Soviet Russia and Georgia. On September 25, 1921, the Georgian SSR was formed, which from December 1922 was part of the USSR, first as part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, and from 1936 to 1991 as a union republic. On April 9, 1991, based on the results of a national referendum, the Supreme Council of the Republic adopted the Act on the Restoration of the State Independence of Georgia, proclaimed the Act
of Independence of 1918 and the Constitution of 1921 valid.

In 1941–45 Georgia was an active participant in the war against fascist Germany. For military exploits 137 people. from Georgia were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. In the war, St. 250 thousand citizens of the republic.

In May 1991, Z. Gamsakhurdia won the presidential elections. In January 1992, as a result of a sharp confrontation between internal political forces, he was removed from his post. The Military Council that came to power dissolved Parliament and suspended
the Constitution. In March of the same year, the Military Council announced its self-liquidation and the creation of the State Council headed by E. Shevardnadze.

Tbilisi’s attempts after the restoration of independence to proclaim Georgia a unitary state, excluding the existence of autonomies in its composition, met with resistance from the Abkhazians and South Ossetians.

In August 1992, after the entry of government troops into Abkhazia, an armed Georgian-Abkhaz conflict broke out. In September 1993, the Abkhaz took control of the entire territory of Abkhazia. On May 14, 1994, in Moscow, under the auspices of the UN and with the mediation of the Russian Federation, an agreement was signed on a ceasefire and separation of forces. On the basis of this document and the decision of the Council of Heads of State of the CIS since June 1994, collective peacekeeping forces (CPFM) have been deployed in the conflict zone.

Following this, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG). After the abolition of the South Ossetian autonomy on its territory on September 19, 1990, the creation of the Republic of South Ossetia was proclaimed. This largely
predetermined the aggravation of the situation and the beginning of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict. In June 1992, a peacekeeping operation began in South Ossetia. The Joint Peacekeeping Forces consisting of Russian, Georgian and Ossetian battalions were brought into the conflict zone.

Thanks to the persistent peacekeeping efforts of the Russian Federation in both conflicts, it was possible to stop the bloodshed, separate the warring parties and start the negotiation process. As for cooperation with the Russian Federation, in 1994 a bilateral Treaty of Friendship, Good Neighborliness and Cooperation was signed. In total, more than 80 bilateral treaty-legal acts on political, economic, military, cultural, scientific and technical cooperation have been signed.

However, relations between the Russian Federation and Georgia have become aggravated recently. This is recognized by heads of state, politicians, analysts, leaders of the highest echelons of power, and the public. The accusations come from both sides. Georgia sees the “hand of Moscow” in all its troubles (the assassination attempt on E. Shevardnadze, the revolt of the Georgian military in western Georgia, the capture of UN hostages, tensions between the Center and Adzharia, economic
problems). In fact, there are three problems – this is the Abkhazian issue, the withdrawal of Russian troops from Georgia and the conflict on the Chechen section of the Russian-Georgian border, the Pankisi Gorge. Free passage of Chechens in Georgia and the refusal of the latter from the joint protection of the border in the region of Chechnya. This forced the Russian Federation to introduce a full-scale visa regime with Georgia from March 1, 2001.

The wave of attacks on the Russian Federation is also due to the indecision and uncertainty of its policy, determined by the fear of being accused of “imperial manners”. It is known that the most irritating fact for Georgia is the unresolved Abkhazian problem.

Various conflicts that arise between Georgia and the Russian Federation are a kind of revenge for Abkhazia – a source of significant replenishment of the state budget of Georgia. Nationalism in Tbilisi is also manifested in relation to Adzharia.

History of Georgia