In the 1st-4th centuries in the Ethiopian province of Tigray and on the territory of today’s Eritrea, an autochthonous civilization and statehood, the early feudal kingdom of Aksum, was born and developed. According to historyaah, it became the historical and geographical source of the Ethiopian state. From the 4th c. Christianity spreads in Aksum. 8th-10th centuries – the period of the decline of Aksum and the beginning of Islamic expansion. In the 12th century there is a consolidation of Christian Ethiopian lands. From con. 13th c. the conflict between the Christian kingdom and the Muslim sultanates grew. For the 16th century account for the resettlement of pastoral Oromo tribes in the territory of Ethiopia, to the end. centuries, they settled widely in the Ethiopian highlands and became part of its multi-ethnic population. The prevailing myth of a Christian island in a sea of Islamic encirclement reflected the non-factual ratio of Christians and Muslims in the population of a vast territory, where for centuries of common history Islamic and pagan states coexisted with Christian feudal states. The myth reflected a single trend in the development of the Ethiopian civilization, the ideology of which was the culture of orthodox Monophysite Christianity.
Feudal fragmentation characterizes Ethiopia during the 17th-18th and 1st half. 19th centuries Attempts to collect under their rule all the provinces that were ever part of the empire were made by Emperor Tewodros II (from 1855) and Emperor Yohannis IV (from 1872). But only Emperor Menelik II (1889-1913) managed to centralize the Ethiopian state. Under the threat of the expansion of the expansion of the Italian colonialists, Menelik ceded some northern territories to Italy. Having united the occupied territories on the Red Sea into one colony – Eritrea, Italy made further attempts to conquer the Ethiopian territories. The Battle of Adua on March 1, 1896 was decisive for the victory of the Ethiopians. Italy recognized the independence of Ethiopia. In contrast to plans to seize the Ethiopian territories in the south, southwest and southeast of the country, Menelik in 1893-98 expanded the borders of the empire at the expense of regions. See ehistorylib for more about Ethiopia history.
Emperor Haile Selassie I, who ascended the throne in 1930, turned Ethiopia into an absolute monarchy. In 1936–41 the country was occupied by fascist Italy. After the end of the 2nd World War, the mandate to govern Eritrea was transferred to the UN. By a resolution of the UN General Assembly, against the adoption of which only the USSR opposed, in 1952 Ethiopia formed a federal state together with Eritrea. However, already in 1962 Eritrea became one of the provinces of Ethiopia. Despite the Constitution of 1955, which provided for a parliament elected by citizens, Ethiopia continued to be a purely feudal country. The general economic backwardness and the ever-increasing uprisings of the brutally exploited peasants gradually weakened the ruling regime. In January 1974, the army came out against the emperor. The monarchy was officially abolished in March 1975.
The head of state was the Provisional Military Administrative Council (VVAS, or “Derg” in Amharic). The VVAS became the vanguard of the Ethiopian revolution, overcoming disagreements with its opponents with brutal physical reprisals. In February 1977, the first deputy chairman of the Council, Lieutenant Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam, physically eliminating rivals, seized power, taking the post of chairman of the BBAS. The Red Terror began in the country, the victims of which were thousands of people. In 1977, Mengistu announced a course of socialist orientation, in 1984 the Workers’ Party of Ethiopia (RPE) was created, in 1987 a new Constitution was adopted, the country became known as the People’s Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
Under Mengistu, power was even more centralized than under the monarch, and even the semblance of democracy disappeared, aided by a one-party system. The radical nature of the agrarian reform of 1975 was the abolition of feudal ownership of land. However, by transferring all the land to public ownership, the state took the place of the feudal lord as the owner of the land, which made it possible to carry out programs for collectivization, resettlement from farms to common villages and the resettlement of large masses of the population. The role of the state was decisive in intervening in the economy, i.e. the essence of the regime was in the command system of economic management. For 17 years of the totalitarian regime, in almost all indicators of economic growth, the country has not moved forward, the national policy of the authorities has failed, in different parts of the country they have matured or have long operated underground, illegal separatist movements. The military successes of the allied TPLF (People’s Front for the Liberation of Tigray) and EPLF (People’s Front for the Liberation of Eritrea) contributed to their activation. In 1989, the TPLF established control over the province of Tigray and merged with the Ethiopian People’s Democratic Movement, an organization of the Amhara people, to form the Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPDF). As we moved south, other organizations were created and merged with the Front. On May 28, 1991, EPRDF forces entered Addis Ababa and established an interim government. At the same time, the NPLF seized control of the entire territory of Eritrea. In July 1991, at a conference on the transition to peace and democracy, a Transitional Charter and a Declaration on Eritrea were adopted, providing for its right to independence through a referendum. In May 1995, multi-party parliamentary elections were held,
Science and culture of Ethiopia
Ethiopia has free education. All R. 1990s primary education covered 37% of the younger age group (47% of boys and 27% of girls). 11% of children studied in secondary school (13% of boys and 10% of girls). Experimental teaching has been introduced in 14 languages, but not all languages have equally developed vocabulary, which makes it difficult to introduce new programs. Higher education is provided by: Addis Ababa University, the Polytechnic Institute in Bahir Dar, the University of Alem Maya, the Agricultural Institute in Jimma, etc. A significant number of research centers and institutions are concentrated in the capital. There are also scientific centers in other cities (in Debre Zeit, Awas, Jimma, and others).
Ethiopia is a country of ancient culture. The birth of proper Ethiopian literature in the Geez language dates back to the 4th-7th centuries, at the time of the heyday of the state of Aksum. From the 14th century Literature developed in the then-dead language Geez do Kon. 19th century, it was based on religious themes. Amharic was first used in the 14th century. to record royal songs. The founder of modern fiction is Afework Gebre Jesus. Among the famous writers of the 20th century. Khyruya Wolde-Syllase, Mykonnyn Yn-dalkachou, Kebade Mikael, Sahle-Syllase Byrha-ne-Maryam and Bealu Gyrma. Musical culture of Ethiopia since the 8th century. For a long time it developed in isolation from the outside world and developed unique styles and forms. The diversity of folk music is associated with the diversity and heterogeneity of the ethnic composition of the population.
Famous monuments of architecture: the obelisk-steles of Aksum, the rock churches of Lalibela, the palaces of Gondar. With the strengthening of Christianity, ornamental art became widespread, based on the cross and other Christian emblems and symbols. The heyday of the Ethiopian school of icon painting falls on the period of the mature and late Middle Ages. The preservation and development of the traditions of national art is continued by contemporary artists, among them Abebe Wolde Giorgis, Abdul Rahman Sherif, Afawork Tekle, Gebre-Krystos Desta, Vorku Mamo and others.