According to historyaah, the island of Cuba was discovered by H. Columbus on October 27, 1492. The colonization of the country by Spain began in 1511. The Indian tribes inhabiting it (Guanahatabei, Siboney, and Taino), under the leadership of their leaders Atuey and Guama, offered stubborn resistance to the conquerors, who transferred socio-political and economic feudal institutions of the metropolis. In 1596 the island received the status of captaincy general. The progressive extinction of the indigenous population forced the organization of the importation of blacks from Africa, whose labor became the basis of the slave-owning plantation economy (sugar cane, tobacco, coffee), which occupied by the middle. 18th century along with pastoral latifundia, a leading place in the economy of the colony. Gradually, a class of wealthy Creole landowners took shape. At the same time, the dissatisfaction of the population with the colonial order grew.
The independence movement arose in Cuba in the 19th century. The anti-colonial Ten Years’ War (its leaders were K. M. de Cespedes and I. Agramonte, representatives of the patriotic part of the large landowners), which began on October 10, 1868 with an uprising near the town of Yara, ended with the Sankhon Pact (1878). Its main result was the abolition of slavery (1886), which contributed to the national unity of the Cubans. An attempt by the most radical elements to continue the struggle (the Little War of 1879–80) failed, and Spain retained its dominance over the island.
A new uprising for independence broke out on February 24, 1895 (“Cry from Bayre”). Its leader, organizer and inspirer was H. Marty (died in action in May 1895). A. Maceo and M. Gomez also played a prominent role in the struggle for national liberation.
In an effort to take advantage of the liberation struggle of the Cuban people, on April 25, 1898, the United States entered the war with Spain, which ended with the occupation of the island by American troops. On May 20, 1902, Cuba received formal independence. In 1901, under pressure from the United States, the so-called. the Platt Amendment, which meant the establishment of an unofficial US protectorate over the country. The latter were leased territories in the areas of Guantanamo and Bahia Honda. See ehistorylib for more about Cuba history.
In 1925, with the support of the United States, the dictatorship of J. Machado was established in Cuba, which was overthrown on August 12, 1933, as a result of a revolution. In September 1933, a provisional revolutionary government headed by R. Grau San Martin came to power, expressing the political sentiments of the national bourgeoisie and the middle urban strata. In 1934 it was overthrown as a result of a coup by Colonel F. Batista. Batista carried out a certain democratization of internal life: in 1938 the Communist Party was legalized, in 1939 the Trade Union Center of the Working People of Cuba was founded, and in 1940 a new Constitution was adopted – one of the most democratic in the world of that time.
Under the subsequent governments of R. Grau San Martin (1944–48) and especially C. Prio Socarras (1948–52), the persecution of democratic forces evoked a response in the form of the activation of the latter. Fearing the victory of these forces in the forthcoming elections in June 1952, Batista staged a preventive coup d’état on March 10 and established a military-police regime in the country. On July 26, 1953, an unsuccessful armed uprising against the dictatorship took place under the leadership of F. Castro. With the landing on December 2, 1956, on the territory of Cuba, a revolutionary detachment of 82 people. led by Castro, the insurgency in the country received a new impetus. The movement against the dictatorship took various forms, and on January 1, 1959, as a result of the joint actions of all revolutionary forces, the pro-American regime of Batista fell. February 17, 1959 Castro took over as Prime Minister of the Revolutionary Government, which embarked on a radical socio-economic and political transformation. After Castro proclaimed a course towards building socialism on April 16, 1961, a brigade of American mercenaries landed in Cuba (in the Playa Giron area). The defeat of the interventionists embittered the counter-revolution supported and directed by the United States. The intervention of the USSR in the conflict led to one of the largest confrontations between “socialism and imperialism” after the 2nd World War, known as the Caribbean (or Missile) Crisis of 1962. Its outcome opened a period of peaceful development for Cuba.
Science and culture of Cuba
Scientific activity in Cuba is coordinated by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environmental Protection (founded in 1994). It consists of 39 different scientific institutions, incl. Cuban Academy of Sciences (founded in 1962) and four agencies: Atomic Energy, Science and Technology, Environment and Information for Development. In recent years, the main efforts of Cuban scientists have been directed towards applied scientific research, which promises a real economic effect in the near future. From the 2nd floor. 1990s a number of scientific institutions are united in the so-called. scientific poles. One of the largest is the Science Pole of the West of Havana, established in 1996 and uniting 38 scientific institutions operating within 10 ministries. The cost of research activities amounted to 136 million pesos in 2000, the number of employees in the field of science and technology – 64.1 thousand people, including more than 6 thousand doctors of sciences.
St. 50% of all scientific work in Cuba is carried out at universities and their 76 research centers. The higher education system includes 61 universities, of which 17 are in the system of the Ministry of Higher Education, 16 of the Ministry of Education and 14 of the Ministry of Health. The teaching staff of universities is 21.6 thousand people. The largest universities are Havana (founded in 1728) and Oriente (founded in 1947). Education spending in 2000 was 7.6% of GDP.
In 2000, there were (units) in the country: theaters and theater halls – 361, cinemas – 682, libraries – 131, museums – 330, cultural centers – 308 and amateur art groups – 21,538. 7.45 million copies of 1026 books were published. various titles, 25 films were released, incl. 6 full length.