Before the conquest, on the territory of modern Colombia, there were 5 Indian proto-states headed by hereditary rulers. A relatively high level of development was achieved by the civilization of the Chibcha-Muisca, who were at the stage of transition from a primitive communal to an early class society. The coast of the country was explored by the Spanish expeditions of A. de Ojeda and R. de Bastidas. A key role in the conquest in the 1530s. belonged to G. Jimenez de Quesada and S. de Belalcazar. During the colonial period, the number of indigenous people decreased by 4 times. The largest uprising against colonial rule was the uprising of the comuneros (1781), suppressed by the authorities.
According to historyaah, a popular uprising that broke out on July 20, 1810, marked the beginning of the struggle for the independence of the Spanish colony of New Granada, which also included present-day Colombia. In 1811, an act was signed establishing the confederation of the United Provinces of New Granada. In August 1819, the combined troops of the New Granada and Venezuelans, under the leadership of S. Bolivar, proclaimed the Federal Republic of Great Colombia, consisting of New Granada, Venezuela, and Quito. S. Bolivar was elected president, and F. de Paula Santander was elected vice president. In 1830 the federation collapsed. Under the Constitution of 1863, the country was named the United States of Colombia, and since 1886 it has had its current name. In 1854, the only one in the 19th century took place. coup d’état, within 8 months. the military was in power. In the 19th century the country has been the scene of numerous civil wars between liberals and conservatives. The bloodiest of them – the Thousand Days War (1899-1902) – claimed more than 100 thousand lives. In 1903, Panama seceded from Colombia with US support. In 1932–34, armed clashes took place between Colombia and Peru over disputed territories in the region of Leticia (upper Amazon), which eventually went to Colombia.
During the first presidency of the representative of the left wing of the liberal party, A. López Pumarejo (1934-38 and 1942-45), an 8-hour working day, sickness and unemployment benefits, free secondary education, school separated from the church, and a law on agrarian reform were introduced, the activities of foreign companies are limited, diplomatic relations with the USSR are established. During World War II, Colombia provided assistance to the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition, and in 1943 declared war on Germany. See ehistorylib for more about Colombia history.
In 1948, the assassination of the popular politician H.E. Gaitan caused a spontaneous popular uprising and a civil war, during which more than 200 thousand people died. In hard-to-reach areas, a mass partisan movement arose that controlled certain territories.
In 1953, as a result of a military coup, General G. Rojas Pinilla seized power, who was in power until 1957. After the overthrow of the dictatorship, a long transition from authoritarianism to democracy began. During the period of the National Front (1958–74), liberals and conservatives successively replaced each other in power and distributed all government and state posts on an equal footing, regardless of the outcome of the elections. The gradual dismantling of the parity system actually began in 1972, when parity was abolished in elections to local authorities. In 1974, the traditional parties acted independently in the presidential and congressional elections, and since 1978 in the executive branch, but a de facto one-party liberal government was formed only in 1986. In subsequent years, a number of ministerial posts were given to the opposition. After the entry into force of the 1991 Constitution, a period of pluralistic democracy began. A significant obstacle to its consolidation remains the ongoing wave of violence caused by an internal armed conflict with left-wing partisans, the fight against the drug mafia and, to some extent, the excess of authority allowed by the forces of law and order.