Before the beginning 7th c. on the territory of Bhutan, there was a semi-legendary state of Mon-yul (according to one version, inhabited by the Monpa aborigines who professed shamanism, according to another, it was part of Tibet). From the 7th c. Buddhism comes from Tibet, the migration of Tibetans has increased. By the 11th century all of Bhutan was occupied by Tibetan troops. Up to the 17th c. There were many small kingdoms on the territory of Bhutan (the most significant was the kingdom of Bumthang). The monk Ngawang Namgyal, who arrived from Tibet, united the country by creating a theocratic monarchy. Numerous expeditions of the Tibetan troops ended in failure. A harmonious administrative system was created, a legal code was introduced. During this period, the largest number of the largest dzongs (fortress-monasteries) was built. To avoid civil strife and schism, the death of the monarch (1651) was not reported for more than half a century. Until ser. 18th century new rulers were recognized as “corporeal” reincarnations of the king, before the beginning. 20th century – spiritual. However, according to historyaah, internal conflicts began in 1728, which facilitated the penetration of the East India Company (the first expedition, 1772–73). As a result of numerous successful campaigns of British troops and the signing of treaties (1774, 1841, 1865, 1910), Great Britain annexed part of the territory of Bhutan and established control over its foreign policy (for which an annual subsidy was paid). The legal status of Bhutan has not been determined. 1910) Britain annexed part of Bhutan and took control of Bhutan’s foreign policy (for which an annual subsidy was paid). The legal status of Bhutan has not been determined. 1910) Britain annexed part of Bhutan and took control of Bhutan’s foreign policy (for which an annual subsidy was paid). The legal status of Bhutan has not been determined.
After several civil wars, by 1885 Bhutan was unified under the rule of Uguyen Wangchuck, the leader of the pro-British faction. The new ruler provided significant mediation services to Great Britain during the Anglo-Tibetan war. In 1907, the system of “reincarnation” and dual government was abolished, a hereditary monarchy was established, and Uguyen Wangchuck became the ancestor of the dynasty. His successor Jigme Wangchuck (r. 1926-52) continued the policy of centralization and some modernization – the construction of schools, roads, and the development of trade with India.
In 1949, India concluded an agreement with Bhutan that recognized the country’s independence and established “special relations.” Ties with Tibet were terminated after its entry into the People’s Republic of China. In 1953, a royal decree was adopted establishing a legislative branch—the National Assembly, which received additional rights in 1968–69. In 1965, the Royal Advisory Council was formed, whose functions include providing advice to the king on governance. In 1968, the Council of Ministers was created (since 1998, the king ceased to be its chairman and delegated additional powers to the cabinet). See ehistorylib for more about Bhutan history.
A system of five-year plans was introduced in 1961 (for the first 10 years they were fully financed by India), and the construction of factories and hydroelectric power stations began (with India’s help). Since the 1970s Bhutan gradually began to establish diplomatic relations with other countries.
Adopted at the turn of the 1980-90s. laws (recognition of the Dzongke language only, requirements to wear traditional Bhutanese clothing, hairstyles and observe Buddhist customs and rituals, restrictions on the entry of Indian citizens) led to unrest among people of Nepalese origin and their clashes with the army. The authorities accuse the opposition of “terrorism”, they believe that a policy of “butanization” is being carried out and there is a purposeful extrusion of persons who are different in racial and religious terms. Since 1993, official Nepalese-Bhutanese negotiations on refugees from Bhutan have been held.
In 1999, cable TV and Internet access are allowed. In 2001, a committee was formed to draft the Constitution. In 2002, its text was submitted to the king for consideration.