History of Angola

By | April 28, 2022

From the 13th century states arose on the territory of Angola, some of them lasted more than a century. Portuguese navigators landed on the coast of Angola in the 1480s. She became a source of slaves for Europeans, who were sent to Brazil and other countries of the New World. Having seized the coast, the colonialists set about conquering the interior, which continued until the 1920s. Resistance to colonial rule culminated in 1928 and 1930 in uprisings, brutally crushed by Portuguese troops.

According to historyaah, after World War II, the rise of the national liberation struggle began in the country. In 1956, the anti-colonial organization Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) arose. In 1961, she raised an uprising in Luanda, which marked the beginning of the armed struggle against colonialism. Two more liberation movements soon arose—in 1962 the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA), and in 1966 the National Union for the Complete Independence of Angola (UNITA).

After the Portuguese Revolution of 1974, an agreement was concluded between the Portuguese government and three liberation organizations to grant Angola independence. November 11, 1975 was proclaimed the People’s Republic of Angola (since 1992 – the Republic of Angola). Its first president was MPLA leader Agostinho Neto. Disagreements between the national liberation organizations led to a civil war immediately after independence, the FNLA and UNITA opposed the MPLA. Unfortunately for the country, each movement was based on one of the three largest ethnic groups. In 1975, Zaire and racist South Africa intervened in the internal conflict, sending their troops to help the FNLA and UNITA. In response, Cuba sent its military contingent to support the Angolan government. The USSR and Western countries organized massive deliveries of military equipment to the warring parties. The conflict took on an international character. It was also complicated by the fact that bases of the FNLA and UNITA were created in Zaire, and camps of the ANC and SWAPO of the liberation movements of South Africa and Namibia in Angola. As punishment for Zaire for supporting the FNLA and UNI-TA, from the territory of Angola, they invaded southern Zaire, who had fled the so-called. Katangese gendarmes. In A. itself, military operations proceeded with varying success. The government managed to break up the FNLA detachments, which ceased to exist, but UNITA was significantly strengthened. See ehistorylib for more about Angola history.

In 1982, American diplomacy made the first attempt to find a political solution to this tangle of contradictions in southwest Africa by organizing negotiations between Angola and South Africa. Since 1987, the United States acted as a mediator together with the USSR, and Cuba was involved in the negotiations. In December 1988, the New York Agreement was signed, according to which South Africa granted independence to Namibia and stopped aid to UNITA, Angola closed ANC camps on its territory, and Cuba withdrew troops from Angola by July 1991. In 1989, with the international mediation of J. E. dos Santos (who became president of Angola after Neto’s death in 1979) and UNITA leader J. Savimbi signed an agreement on a ceasefire and national reconciliation, but a month later Savimbi violated it and resumed hostilities. After that, there were new agreements on the reconciliation of the warring parties, but every time Savimbi tore them apart. Finally, in 1991, the government and UNI-TA reached an agreement at negotiations in Estoril (Portugal) on an immediate end to the war, holding presidential and parliamentary elections under international control until the end of 1992, and on the subsequent unification of the opposing armed forces into a single army. General elections, in which 90% of voters took part, were held in September 1992. Of the several candidates who ran for the presidency, Santos (49.6%) and Savimbi (40%) collected the most votes. Since they did not reach the required 50% +1 vote, the 2nd round of the presidential elections was coming up. In the elections to the National Assembly, the MPLA won a majority – 129 seats out of 220. International observers considered the elections fair, without serious violations, but Savimbi refused to acknowledge their results and resumed hostilities. They continued until 2002, when Savimbi died and UNITA leaders decided to end the war and announced their cooperation with the government.

History of Angola