By the 1st millennium BC. e. on the territory of modern Afghanistan, several independent cultural and historical regions (proto-states) have already formed – Arachosia, Drangiana (later Seistan), Areya, Bactria, Margiana, Gandhara. In the 6th c. BC. they became part of the Persian state of the Achaemenids, and then were subjugated in the 4th century. BC. Alexander the Great. The result of his campaign was the formation on the territory of Armenia in the 3rd century. BC. Greco-Bactrian kingdom.
According to historyaah, the invasion of the Saka tribes in the 1st c. BC. led to the creation of the Kushan kingdom, which also included Northwestern India. It was the largest state of the ancient world along with Rome and Parthia. Buddhism became the state religion of the Kushans. In the 7th century Afghanistan was invaded by the Arabs, who brought here a new religion – Islam.
To replace the Arabs in the 10th century. came the Central Asian Turks, one of whose leaders Sultan Mahmud created in the 10th century. the largest Ghaznavid empire in the region, which included Iran, the south of Central Asia with Khorezm and North-Western India. Having existed for a short time, the collapsed empire in the 11th century. became part of the new state of the Seljuk Turks who invaded here from Central Asia. See ehistorylib for more about Afghanistan history.
The next newcomers to the land of the Afghans in the 13th century. turned out to be the hordes of Genghis Khan. Afghanistan did not escape another assimilation, this time ethnic: one of the consequences of the Mongol invasion was the formation in the 14-15 centuries. a new nationality – the Khazars (self-name – Khazars). In the 14th century the territory of Afghanistan became part of the possessions of the new conqueror – Timur. His son Shahrukh and later one of the Timurid princes Sultan Hussein Baiqara in the 15th-16th centuries. managed to create a prosperous state in Khorasan with its capital in Herat, which amazed contemporaries with the splendor of architecture and the immortal creations of the poet, scientist and statesman Alisher Navoi, the Sufi poet Abdurrahman Jami, the great master of miniature Behzad. To con. 17th century the southeast of Afghanistan was in vassal dependence on the Great Mughals,
After the collapse of the Safavid state in 1747, an independent Afghan state appeared, headed by Ahmad Shah Durrani, with the capital Kandahar. Ahmad Shah created the Durrani Empire, which also included the eastern part of Persia, Khorasan, Balochistan, Punjab and Sindh. However, under his successors, the state broke up into a number of independent principalities – Peshawar, Kabul, Kandahar and Herat.
In the beginning. 19th century The Afghan principalities became the object of British colonial expansion, which resulted in the First Anglo-Afghan War of 1838–42. As a result of a popular uprising, the British were expelled from the country. But the attempts of Emir Dost Muhammad and his successor Sher Ali Khan to unite and reform the country ran into opposition from the British colonialists, who, having entered into rivalry with Russia, which was carrying out colonial expansion in Central Asia, unleashed the 2nd Anglo-Afghan War in 1878-80 and were defeated again. However, in accordance with the Gandamak Treaty of 1879, the British gained control over the country’s foreign policy.
In con. 19th century Emir Abdurrahman created a centralized Afghan state within modern borders, but in 1893 he was forced to sign an agreement with the British, according to which part of the territories inhabited by Pashtuns was annexed to British possessions in India.
In 1919, as a result of the 3rd Anglo-Afghan War, Emir Amanullah restored the country’s full independence and carried out a series of political, economic, and social reforms aimed at eliminating feudalism. After the fall of his regime in 1929 and the short reign of the conservative Emir Bachai Sakao, a despotic regime headed by King Nadir Shah came to power, a course was set for political stabilization and strengthening of national sovereignty. Neutrality was the basis of foreign policy.
After World War II, opposition movements appeared in Afghanistan demanding political and economic reforms and the democratization of the country. In the conditions of the Cold War, the USSR and the USA began to compete for dominant influence in the country.
The King’s cousin Muhammad Daoud, who came to power in 1953, after unsuccessful attempts to obtain military and economic assistance from the United States, turned to the Soviet Union.
In 1955, the USSR signed an agreement on economic cooperation with Afghanistan, opening a new stage in the development of relations between the two countries. Within the framework of the policy of “guided economy” pursued by M. Daud, on the basis of planned development, a public sector was created in the country, represented by a number of large economic facilities built with the assistance of the USSR. In the conditions of the Cold War, the USSR and the USA began to compete for dominant influence in the country.
In 1964, on the initiative of King Zahir Shah, a new Constitution was adopted in Afghanistan, which marked the beginning of the process of liberalizing political life. However, in the conditions that arose in the beginning. 1970s General crisis in 1973 in the country there was a coup d’état. As a result, the monarchy was overthrown and the Republic of Afghanistan headed by M. Daoud was proclaimed.
In 1978 the authoritarian regime of Daoud was overthrown. Power passed to the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), which focused on building socialism. The state was declared the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. Attempts to speed up the process of building a new society, undertaken by the totalitarian regime, and the intra-party struggle led the country to a crisis. In December 1979, the invasion of Soviet troops into Afghanistan began in support of the “friendly regime”. Under the conditions of de facto Soviet occupation, the puppet regime of the PDPA faced massive resistance unfolding under the banner of jihad. The Afghan opposition received strong support from the conservative regimes in the region and Western countries. The Afghan conflict was internationalized, becoming the center of a military-political and ideological confrontation between the two world systems.
Taken in the second half of the 1980s. President Najibullah’s efforts to liberalize socio-political and economic life, as well as the course towards national reconciliation, could not lead the country out of the military-political impasse. withdrew its troops from Afghanistan.
After the collapse of the USSR, the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul was doomed. In 1992, the Mujahideen seized power in the country, proclaiming the creation of the Islamic State of Afghanistan. An armed struggle for power began between the Mujahideen groups, which brought the country to the brink of administrative and political disintegration.
In 1994, the Taliban movement appeared, declaring its goal to end the civil war and create a “truly Islamic” state. In 1996, the Taliban captured Kabul and proclaimed the territory they controlled the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan under the rule of a military theocratic regime. They imposed harsh Islamic norms on the people, which led to massive violations of human rights. The Islamic extremism of the Taliban went beyond the borders of Afghanistan with the appearance in the country of Osama bin Laden and militants of the terrorist organization Al-Qaeda, who, with the support of the Taliban leadership, turned the country into a hotbed of international terrorism and a major center for the production of drugs.
In response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the Taliban were defeated and removed from power by the forces of the international anti-terrorist coalition led by the United States. In December 2001, an interim government began to function in Afghanistan, and from June 2002 a transitional government headed by President Hamid Karzai proclaimed the path to peace and democracy.