Higher Education in South Africa
Stellenbosch University main building
With numerous universities and technical colleges, a major country in African continent according to behealthybytomorrow, South Africa has the most extensive academic and research institutions in Africa. After 1994 they had to be fundamentally reformed in order to overcome the racist exclusivity during apartheid. Anti-discrimination and diversity management are among the guidelines today.
The University of Cape Town, founded in 1829, is one of the most renowned universities on the continent because of its high level of research, and it maintains worldwide academic collaborations. The University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg is also one of the country’s leading research institutions. Similar to the University of Cape Town, the Witwatersrand University was a niche for dissident English-speaking intellectuals during apartheid.
In Gauteng Province, the University of Johannesburg and the University of Pretoria are also attracting large numbers of students today. In the Western Cape, this applies to the University of the Western Cape, the former University of Colored near Cape Town. The University of Stellenbosch is also located at the gates of Cape Town; Before 1994 it was the cadre school of the Boer elite and a hub in the political power network of the apartheid regime and was gradually reformed afterwards. In addition to the inland universities in Bloemfontein and Potchefsdrom who were also firmly in the grip of the Boer power apparatus or church representatives loyal to the regime, are still taught primarily in Afrikaans at Stellenbosch University. Because of its favorable location, it is a popular destination for university partnerships and maintains exchange programs with, among others, German institutes.
Although research collaborations focus on individual tertiary educational institutions, other universities are noteworthy: In the Eastern Cape, this is Rhodes University in Grahamstown, whose department for journalism and media studies is the largest and oldest journalism school in Africa. The University of Fort Hare, founded in 1916, is also steeped in tradition, the academic home of many lawyers and opponents of apartheid such as Nelson Mandela, Oliver Tambo and Govan Mbeki. There is also the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University with locations in Port Elizabeth and George.
The University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban is the most important educational institution for the populous province of KwaZulu-Natal. The University of Durban-Westville, one of today’s locations, was set up for students of Indian origin during apartheid.
The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research is important for the national and international exchange of natural scientists and engineers from various research institutes. The South African Journal of Science gives insights into scientific research.
The University of South Africa in Pretoria is well known beyond the state borders of South Africa because it offers many distance learning programs that students in neighboring countries also use.
The structural change of the universities and the greater integration of students and lecturers of the black majority of the population, which was almost excluded from university education until 1994, is a goal in which the university administrations are working in many places. Although the proportion of black adults with a university degree is increasing, many still have to overcome higher hurdles than whites due to poverty and difficult living and living conditions. A high dropout rate contributes to this of over forty percent. The unemployment rate for black graduates is also higher than for whites. Not all students who have obtained a ‘Matric’ school leaving certificate can meet the requirements of a degree. In 2012, 73.9% of all Matric candidates passed the final exam, but only 26.6% successfully passed the BA entrance exams at universities. In 2014, 78.2% passed the final examination in secondary schools, but only 30.6% of graduates in state secondary schools achieved a good grade average, which is a prerequisite for a BA degree. As in school, financial, family or health problems are major obstacles for many young people during their studies. The high tuition fees 2015 and 2016 were the occasion for repeated student protests, especially since many cannot meet their financial demands with either loans or scholarships. In addition, the students called for institutional and content-related reforms. Again and again the protests escalated violently. The problems faced by the students also include racism, HIV infection and various forms of gender-based violence, so that a number of universities have issued guidelines against sexual abuse on campus, especially in student dormitories, and against HIV / AIDS.
School in Soweto