Haiti Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022
Basic data
Capital Port-au-Prince
Population 1 million
Language Haitian Creole, French
Religion Roman Catholics, Protestants, Atheists, Voodoo
State system Semi-presidential system
Head of State position vacant
Head of government Ariel Henry
Currency name Haitian gourd (HTG)

Haiti Basic Information

Time shift -6 o’clock winter / -5 o’clock summer time
Nominal GDP (billion USD) 23.3
Economic growth (%) 2.0
Inflation (%) 16.5
Unemployment (%) 14

Haiti, the full name of the Republic of Haiti, is a country in the western part of the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea. The Dominican Republic is located on the eastern part of the island. Haiti represents the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere facing a food crisis. Up to 75% of the population lives below the poverty line. Social unrest and political instability continue to hamper the development of the sluggish economy. Haiti has a semi-presidential system, headed by President Jovenel Moise. Since July 2018, Haiti has faced unprecedented socio-political instability and an economic crisis accompanied by demonstrations, including violent ones. The opposition and civil society are repeatedly calling for the resignation of the president, whom they accuse of corruption. The Haitian economy already experienced a 1.7% drop in 2019 and 3.5% in 2020 due to the pandemic. The services sector accounts for 57% of GDP creation, from 22% agriculture and fishing and from 20% industry. Haiti mainly exports textiles, cocoa, coffee and mangoes and imports machinery, construction materials, food and vehicles. The trade balance has been negative for a long time. Exports decreased in 2020 compared to the previous year by USD 0.3 billion to a total of USD 0.9 billion and imports by USD 1 billion to USD billion. Haiti ranks in the 7th, i.e. the worst, credit risk category according to the OECD. The Haitian economy is not expected to prosper significantly in the near future. credit risk category according to OECD. The Haitian economy is not expected to prosper significantly in the near future. credit risk category according to OECD. The Haitian economy is not expected to prosper significantly in the near future.

This Summary Territorial Information is processed for a country that is so-called accredited. The information is provided in a basic scope.

Basic information about the territory


  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

Official name: Republic of Haiti

Capital: Port-au-Prince

Haiti’s current constitution was approved on March 29, 1987, after the fall of the Duvalier regime. The constitution established a semi-presidential system with a president elected by direct universal suffrage every five years. Jovenel Moise was the country’s president from 2017 until his assassination in July 2021. The position is vacant until the new elections, the country is temporarily led by Prime Minister Ariel Henry. Check diseaseslearning to learn more about Haiti political system.

Elections to the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate were supposed to take place in 2018, but they have not yet taken place. Therefore, there is no functioning parliament in the country. The country is in a deep political crisis accompanied by social instability and a critical economic situation.

Foreign policy of the country

In the long term, relations with the United States are the most important for Haiti, as economic ties with the US are essential for the country’s economy. The US is Haiti’s main trading partner for both exports and imports, the most important source of foreign aid, and the primary destination of Haitian emigration. A large number of American NGOs are active in Haiti. However, the current American diplomatic interest in Haiti is minimal. The main topic is primarily cooperation in efforts to control the international drug trade. Check themotorcyclers for Haiti defense and foreign policy.

Due to the common land border, the Dominican Republic represents the second most important foreign political partner. However, their relationships have been complicated for a long time. The large economic disparities between the two countries and an uncontrolled border make the Dominican Republic a destination for Haitian illegal migration. The gradually worsening security situation in Haiti in recent years has negatively affected the Dominican Republic, which does not contribute to good neighborly relations. There are an estimated 250,000 people of Haitian descent living in the Dominican Republic.

Ties with other Caribbean nations have always been limited, mainly for historical reasons. In the past, Britain and France tried to limit contacts between their colonies and dependent territories and Haiti to avoid the risk of an independence movement. Haiti’s cultural and linguistic diversity also hindered close relations in the Caribbean.

Haiti is a member of international organizations such as the United Nations and its affiliates, the ACP, the Organization of American States, the InterAmerican Development Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.


Haiti has a total population of 1million. 95% of the population is black, 5% mulatto and others. As for the religious composition, 54.7% are Roman Catholics, 28.5% Protestants, 2.1% practice voodoo, 4.6% profess other religions and 10.1% have no religion. Up to 75% of the population lives below the poverty line. As a result of migration, Haiti shows a population decrease of -2%.

The official languages ​​are French and Haitian Creole. French is taught in schools, used by authorities and the business sector. However, most Haitians speak Haitian Creole, which was created by mixing French with African languages ​​and Spanish. Spanish is spoken by a large part of the population.