Guinea Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022
Basic data
Capital Conakry
Population 13.13 million
Language French, peul, tiny, soussou
Religion Islam (85%), Christianity (10%), traditional and other religions (5%)
State system Democratic Republic
Head of State temporarily Mamadi Doumbouya
Head of government temporarily Mohamed Béavogui
Currency name Guinean Franc (GNF)

Guinea Basic Information

Travel
Time shift -1 hour (in summer -2 hours)
Economy 2021
Nominal GDP (billion USD) 40.5
Economic growth (%) 6
Inflation (%) 12.6
Unemployment (%) ON

Guinea, also called “Guinea-Conakry” is a small country with great natural assets: a long coastline, significant hydrographic wealth (nicknamed “Africa’s water tower”), agricultural potential and particularly rich subsoil (1st world reserve of bauxite, gold, diamonds and more). However, the Guinean economy remains relatively under-diversified and structurally vulnerable to exogenous shocks. The great economic potential of the mining industry for the development of the country is, on the contrary, a significant threat to the relatively untouched environment.

Despite many advantages, the socio-economic indicators of this underdeveloped country are unfortunate. Guinea remains at the bottom of the HDI rankings, ranking 178th out of 189 countries in 2020. More than half of Guineans (53%) live below the national poverty line (0.9 euros/person/day). In addition, the economy is still largely informal (over half of GDP, almost 70% of the workforce). Check cancermatters to learn more about Guinea political system.

Guinea’s economy has weathered the Covid-19 shock exceptionally well compared to other African states. Economic growth reached 6% for 2021, stimulated by a booming mining sector. However, despite the implementation of a rapid and well-structured response to the pandemic, its negative effects have been felt beyond the mining sector, which accounts for more than 3/4 of the total GDP and employs a large majority of the population. In addition to Covid-19, Guinea is facing a recent re-emergence of Ebola, which paralyzed the country from 2013-2016. While the mining sector is expected to continue to drive overall growth in 2021, the government needs to support non-mining sectors and effectively provide basic services to the ever-growing population.

The third candidacy of President Alpha Condé sparked a wave of protests in October 2020. Discontent spread mainly among young people who called for change. The country is struggling with high unemployment and university graduates in particular are looking for employment in vain. Condé’s regime has long been accused of widespread corruption and looting of national resources. In September 2021, a military coup led by Colonel Mamadi Doumbouya took place, and since then Guinea has experienced political instability. The military junta announced a 39-month transition period, exceeding the demands of international partners. ECOWAS has imposed sanctions on Guinea, and as was the case in 2009-2013, this situation can seriously affect the Guinean economy (slowing down growth, accelerating inflation, increasing the budget deficit).

This Summary Territorial Information is processed for a country that is so-called accredited. The information is provided in an abbreviated form.

Basic information about the territory

Subchapters:

  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

Official name of the country: Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée, commonly also Guinée-Conakry)

System of Government: Guinea is a republic. The president nominates the prime minister, the legislative power is held by the national assembly.

President Alpha Condé secured a controversial third mandate in the October 2020 elections. He managed to get another term in office thanks to the change of the constitution, causing a strong reaction in the ranks of the opposition and among the young population. Negative reactions also appeared on the international scene. In the epidemiological context, demonstrations were strongly suppressed, street clashes with security forces resulted in several deaths.

In October 2021, there was a military coup. Colonel Mamadi Doumbouya overthrew the Condé regime and installed a transitional government that should last 39 months (announcement 04/30/2022). This is contrary to the requirements of the international community. which is trying to push Guinea to quickly hold elections and restore democracy. So the situation is now very unpredictable.

Foreign policy of the country

The former French colony was the first to gain independence on the African continent in October 1958. Compared to other states in the region, the two countries do not have very intense relations.

Guinea, on the other hand, maintains good relations with Russia, which has long been an ally of the Condé regime, and the two presidents have made no secret of their mutual sympathies. After all, V. Putin and the Chinese president were among the small circle of statesmen who sent Condé congratulations on his third mandate. Check prozipcodes for Guinea defense and foreign policy.

After the military coup in September 2021, Guinea became politically very isolated. Sharp reactions came especially from the ECOWAS states in the form of imposing sanctions.

Guinea’s main partners include China, which provides large loans to the government. Mineral wealth is the reason why China places Guinea among its geopolitical priorities in the West African region. Guinea exports almost 40% of bauxite to China, the Asian powerhouse secures supplies of this raw material by investing in infrastructure.

Population

Population: 1million (WB, 2020)
Population under 15: 43.5%
Demographic growth: 2.8%
Life expectancy: 62 years
Fertility: 4.6
Illiteracy: 70%
Population density: 51.09 population/km2

Ethnic composition: Peul/Fula (40%), Malinké (30%), Soussou (20%), others (10%).
The Lebanese and French minorities are numerically insignificant but economically active. Recently, the Chinese community has been growing rapidly.

Religion: Islam (85%), Christianity (8%), Traditional Religion (7%)