- Unlike birds that simply spread viruses from an animal to another animal, pigs are the “—-vessel” where viruses swap genes and become—-, deadly germs.
(A) comprehensive.. small
(B) complicated.. general
(C) frustrated.. important
(D) mixing.. new
(E) lethal.. big
The word “unlike” suggests that pigs do not simply spread viruses from an animal to another animal. Rather, inside pigs, viruses swap genes. Choice D really makes sense. A place where viruses swap genes is a “mixing vessel”, and thus generate “new” germs.
- Ancient cities were—-destroyed, but archeologists have found sufficient information to demonstrate an occasionally—-but generally complete picture in Tan Era.
(A) mostly.. fragmentary
(B) obviously.. necessary
(C) unwittingly.. whole
(D) partially.. famous
(E) fully.. necessary
The first missing word describes how ancient cities were destroyed. The phrase “sufficient information” indicates that not all destroyed, and the word “but” indicates that the cities were destroyed in a way that would not lead you to find sufficient information. The second missing word describes a picture in Tan Era. The word “but” suggests that the word that fills the second blank must contrast with the idea of full. Therefore, the best answer is A, which describes the ancient cities as mostly destroyed.
- Since the primary criterion to evaluate a company is its current performance, analysts —— to consider its previous credit.
The word “since” indicates a cause-effect relation between the first part of sentence and the second part. Therefore, the word that fills the blank should be “not” to consider its previous credit. Choice A, which clearly states redundancy (refused), is the best answer.
- According to Maslow’s theory of need hierarchy, material is the —- demand of human beings, in that it provides the founding floor from which the other demands are generated.
The phrase “in that” suggests that the cause before “in that” should be similar in meaning to that after “in that”. Thus, the word that fills in the blank must be a synonym to “founding”. B is the best answer. The word “basic” means the same as “founding”.
- To be a true leader, a manager must not be too—-: any effective leader depends on the ability of other people to—-with each other.
(A) popular.. agree
(B) adventurous ..communicate
(C) independent.. cooperate
(D) self-confident.. argue
(E) pragmatic.. disagree
The first missing word describes a characteristic that a manager with leadership ability (a leader) can have, but cannot have in excess. The second missing word indicates what followers must be able to do with each other if the leader is to be effective. The colon (:) indicates that the second part of the sentence explains or amplifies what is said in the first part. Therefore, whatever characteristic the leader has must enable others to do with each other. C is the best answer. If a manager were too “independent”, it would be difficult for the leader’s followers to “cooperate” with each other.
- It is not surprising that superior service can generate competitive advantage for a company, but the effort taken to improve service can often be ———–.
The missing word describes how the effort would be to improve service and the word “but” suggests that the word fills the blank must contrast with the idea of “not surprising”. Therefore, D is the best answer.
GRE Reading Comprehension Answered with Explanation
The cutting-edge science is ringing alarm bells. Avian flu virus picked up by pigs can swap genetic materials with another flu virus already in the pig and become a new, hitherto unknown flu virus for which no person, no animal has preexisting immunity. The kind of virus causes a pandemic because it spreads from human to human.
If you took a peek into history, it turns out that previous influenza pandemics have similar scenarios. The greatest influenza pandemic in 1918 caused more than 20 million deaths of soldiers stationed in France. The last influenza pandemic was in 1968, known as the Hong Kong flu (H3N2). Thousands of deaths and millions were infected worldwide.
The other examples are the Nipah virus and Japanese Encephalitis virus, which find pigs to be good hosts. With JE, the virus circulates in the blood of infected pigs. When infected pigs are bitten by Culex mosquitoes, the virus replicates in the mosquito’s gut. The next time the mosquito bites a human, the virus is passed on. The pig doesn’t get sick as such. The Nipah virus causes pneumonia symptoms in pigs. In humans, it causes encephalitis, and humans catch it only with direct contact with infected pigs. Symptoms range from mild headache to permanent brain damage, and can be fatal.
It’s merely a phenomenon of nature that the pig is the “mixing vessel” for the new germ. But make no mistake, the pig is not the villain, neither is the chicken. It’s actually us, and our horrible farm practices, outdated agricultural policy and, most of all, reckless disregard of our ecology and environment. “Hygiene and management can control what eventually happens,” says Lam. “Good farming practice will prevent serious outbreaks and infection to humans.” Despite knowing that, animal diseases and the possibility of transmission to humans are becoming quite alarming. Of the 35 new emerging diseases in the last 20 years, more than 70 per cent involved animals.
In fact, what we may have done is unwittingly create the perfect launch pad for an influenza pandemic that will likely kill large numbers of people across the globe. Although scientists say it’s impossible to predict the odds that the virus will alter its genetic form radically enough to start leaping from human to human, the longer H5N1 is out there killing chickens, the higher the chances are.
- Which of the following statement can be inferred from the passage?
(A) New emerging diseases causes more deaths of human than animal.
(B) Animals are the villain for most flues.
(C) Hygiene and management can not control the spread of viruses.
(D) The current bird flu epidemic may be a launch pad for the next influenza pandemic.
(E) The influenza pandemic is always a regional phenomenon.
Which answer is correct? For choice A, the passage did not make any comparison between deaths of human and deaths of animal. In B, animal is actually not the villain for most flues. Rather, it is human. Look at the second sentence in the fourth paragraph, “But make no mistake, the pig is not the villain, neither is the chicken.” For C, “Hygiene and management can control what eventually happens“(in the middle of fourth paragraph), therefore, C is incorrect. E is also incorrect. Though most flues discussed in this passage were originated from some areas, the passage never stated it was a regional phenomenon. In fact, it “will likely kill large numbers of people across the globe“, as stated at the beginning of last paragraph. The correct answer is D – the current bird flu epidemic may be a launch pad for the next influenza pandemic, because no animal has preexisting immunity and it causes a pandemic by spreading from human to human.
- Which of the following best describes the topic of the passage?
(A) What causes the Nipah virus and Japanese Encephalitis virus to happen?
(B) Does Hong Kong flu originate from pig?
(C) From fowl to pigs to humans?
(D) Is influenza pandemic horrible?
(E) Shall we eat chicken?
This question asks you to find a title for the passage. In other word, it requires you to identify the primary concern of the passage as a whole. The first paragraph presents a recent virus. The second and third paragraphs describe similar influenza pandemics in history. The fourth paragraph concludes who should be responsible for the spread of virus and what human can do to control. The last paragraph indicates that people stimulated rather than inhibited its promulgation. We can thus conclude the current virus will also leap to human. Furthermore, the passage as a whole is to “ring alarm bells”. Therefore, C is the best answer.
- All of the following situations are similar to the spread of avian flu virus described in the first paragraph EXCEPT:
(A) The BT2 spread from a pig to another pig, and thus causes significant disease in pig.
(B) The AIDS viruses transferred from monkeys to man and spread across the world.
(C) The SARS virus originates from some wildlife and is picked up by civet cats from which humans got it.
(D) Nipah virus circulates in the blood of infected pig, which is bitten by Culex mosquitoes, the virus replicates in the mosquito’s gut. The next time the mosquito bites a human, the virus is passed on.
(E) H5N1 starts in chickens and leaps from human to human.
The question requires you to recognize a situation that is not similar to the spear of avian flu. Before considering following answer choices, we fist define its rationale. It is something like this: Avian flu virus picked up by pigs and is transferred to human. All of the situations described in the answer choices are similar to it ex that in choice A (from animal to animal). Therefore, A is the best answer.
- What does the author mean by describing the pig as “mixing vessel”?
(A) Pig is the place where various viruses reside.
(B) Pig is the pot in which viruses swap genes and become new, deadly germs.
(C) Viruses are mixed inside the body of pig.
(D) New germs come to the body of pig and reside there.
(E) Pig attracts viruses.
The question requires you to determine the meanings of “mixing vessel”. At the beginning of the passage, the author states that “Avian flu virus picked up by pigs can swap genetic materials with another flu virus already in the pig and become a new, hitherto unknown flu virus for which no person, no animal has preexisting immunity. The kind of virus causes a pandemic because it spreads from human to human.” In other words, pig is the pot in which viruses swap genes and become new, deadly germs. Therefore, the correct answer is B.
Indian firms have achieved the highest levels of efficiency in the world software outsourcing industry. Some researchers have assumed that Indian firms use the same programming languages and techniques as Chinese firms but have benefited from their familiarity with English, the language used to write software code. However, if this were true, then one would expect software vendors in Hong Kong, where most people speak English, to perform not worse than do Indian vendors. However, this is obviously not the case.
Other researchers link high Indian productivity to higher levels of human resource investment per engineer. But a historical perspective leads to a different conclusion. When the two top Indian vendors matched and then doubled Chinese productivity levels in the mid-eighties, human resource investment per employee was comparable to that of Chinese vendors. Furthermore, by the late eighties, the amount of fixed assets required to develop one software package was roughly equivalent in India and in the China. Since human resource investment was not higher in India, it had to be other factors that led to higher productivity.
A more fruitful explanation may lie with Indian strategic approach in outsourcing. Indian software vendors did not simply seek outsourced contract more effectively: they made aggressive strategic in outsourcing. For instance, most software firms of India were initially set up to outsource the contract in western countries, such as United States. By contrary, most Chinese firms seem to position their business in China, a promising yet under-developed market. However, rampant piracy in China took almost 90 percents of potential market, making it impossible for most Chinese firms to obtain sufficient compensation for the investment on development and research, let alone thrive in competitive environment.
- Which of the following statements concerning the productivity levels of engineers can be inferred from the passage?
(A) Prior to the 1980’s, the productivity levels of the top Indian software firms were exceeded by those of Chinese software firms.
(B) The official language of a country has a large effect on the productivity levels of its software developers.
(C) During the late 1980’s and early 1990’s, productivity levels were comparable in China and India.
(D) The greater the number of engineers that a software firm has, the higher a firm’s productivity level.
(E) The amount of human resource investment made by software developers in their firms determines the level of productivity.
If you do not refer to the original passage, you may pick up B. For test-takers who have some backgrounds in computer, it is obvious that being familiar with English will gain some advantage in writing program code. However, the correct answer is C.
- The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) contrast possible outcomes of a type of business strategy
(B) suggest more careful evaluation of a type of business strategy
(C) illustrate various ways in which a type of business strategy could fail to enhance revenues
(D) trace the general problems of a company to a certain type of business strategy
(E) criticize the way in which managers tend to analyze the costs and benefits of business strategies
This question asks you to summarize the passage’s central idea. Which of the five choices is correct? Based on the verbs initiating the five choices, you can eliminate three of them:
(A) incorrect. To contrast is to compare several things, but not to agree or disagree.
(C) incorrect. To illustrate is to give example, not to agree or disagree.
(D) incorrect. To trace is to track, not to agree or disagree.
Choice E began with argumental word criticize, but isn’t the correct choice because it addresses the detail. Therefore, B is the right answer: to argue that superior service does not generate competitive advantage is to suggest more careful evaluation of a type of business strategy (price reduction).
- Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph?
(A) A thesis is presented and supporting examples are provided.
(B) Opposing views are presented, classified, and then reconciled.
(C) A fact is stated, and an explanation is advanced and then refuted.
(D) A theory is proposed, considered, and then amended.
(E) An opinion is presented, qualified, and then reaffirmed.
This question requires you to identify the organizational structure of the first paragraph. In this paragraph, the author first states a fact that Indian firms achieved the highest efficiency in software outsourcing. Then, an assumption is presented to explain such phenomenon. However, the author refuted this explanation soon. Thus, C is the best answer.
- According to the passage, which of the following statements is true of Indian software developers?
(A) Their productivity levels did not equal those of Chinese software engineers until the late eighties.
(B) Their high efficiency levels are a direct result of English language familiarity.
(C) They develop component-specific software.
(D) They are built to outsource the western orders.
(E) They develop more packages of software than do those in Chinese developers.
In the middle of the last paragraph, the author states that “For instance, most software firms of India were initially set up to outsource the contract in western countries, such as United States.” Thus, the best answer is D.
GRE Analogy Question with Answer
- TELESCOPE : ASTRONOMER ::
(A) picture : artist
(B) environment : ecologist
(C) element : chemist
(D) brush : painter
(E) movie : director
A “telescope” is an instrument commonly used in the work of an “astronomer”. Therefore, a rationale for this analogy could be “X (a telescope) is an instrument commonly used in or associated with the work of a person called a Y (astronomer).” A “brush” is an instrument commonly used in the work of a “painter.” Therefore, D is the best answer.
- MATRIX : NUMBER ::
(A) gas : molecule
(B) snow : precipitation
(C) act : opera
(D) school : fish
(E) crystal : atom
You may define the relationship of the word “matrix” and “number” as: matrix is composed of numerous numbers. In this way, choice A would be great because gas is composed of numerous molecules. If you do not move to the last choice, you will not find a better pair. Choice E is the one. Crystal is defined as a regular arrangement of atoms. For the setup pair, matrix can be defined as a regular arrangement of numbers. The two pairs of words perfect match in relationship. Therefore, E is the best answer.
- HORSE : MARE ::
(A) cat : kitten
(B) human : woman
(C) bull : cow
(D) child : adult
(E) animal : pig
The first colon (:) means “to” and the two colons (::) means “is as”. We read the question as “horse to mare is as…” Next, we need to define the relationship between this pair of words. What is the relationship between horse and mare? A “mare” is a female horse. So, a rationale for this analogy could be “Y (a mare) is a female X“. Because analogy problems require us to look for a pair of words that have the same relationship has the initial two words, we are looking for a pair in which the second word is a female of second word. Once you have determined the relationship between the given pair of words and state it in your mind in sentence form, read through the answer choices substituting the possible pairs into the same sentence you have created to describe the initial pair.
- MARTIAL : MILITARY ::
(A) mysterious : runic
(B) tortuous : straightforward
(C) objective : subjective
(D) clear : complicated
(E) imprudent : damaged
The best answer is A.
- HEADSTRONG : WILLFULNESS ::
(A) engrossing : obliviousness
(B) fawning : subservience
(C) venerable : renown
(D) bold : tip
(E) critical : confidence
The best answer is B.
- SIMULTANEOUS : COINCIDE ::
(A) gracious : significance
(B) fast : acceleration
(C) lavish : squander
(D) intriguing : project
(E) provocative : tradition
The best answer is C.
- INVINCIBLE : SUBDUED ::
(A) impervious : damaged
(B) persuasive : convinced
(C) impossible : taken
(D) invisible : overlooked
(E) despicable : contented
The best answer is A.
GRE Antonym Questions with Answer
“Profound” means difficult to understand or far below the surface. In choice A, “superficial” means lying on surface, directly opposite to the meaning of “profound”. “Precipitous” means steep in rise or fall, “deep” means same as “profound”, “tarnished” means losing luster, and “innocuous” means harmless. Among the five words, only “superficial” has the meanings that are opposite to the given capitalized.