Ghana Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022
Basic data
Capital Accra
Population 30.80 million
Language English
Religion Christianity (71.2%), Islam (17.6%), Traditional Religion (5.2%) Other (6%)
State system Republic
Head of State Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo (since 2016)
Head of government Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo (since 2016)
Currency name Ghana cedi GHc

Ghana Basic Information

Time shift -1h (in summer -2)
Economy 2021
Nominal GDP (billion USD) 193.4
Economic growth (%) 5
Inflation (%) 10
Unemployment (%) ON

Ghana is one of the six Anglophone countries in West Africa. It is surrounded by francophone countries to the north, east and west, and to the south by the Gulf of Guinea, which houses the port of Tema, one of the busiest in West Africa after Lagos and Abidjan. It is a member of the ECOWAS regional association, a signatory to the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) and other international organizations such as the Non-Aligned Movement, the United Nations, the African Union, the Group of 24 (g24) and the Commonwealth of Nations. Ghana is a parliamentary democracy with a presidential system. Ghana’s economy depends on oil and gas, agriculture, services and the mining of gold and other minerals. Ghana mainly exports cocoa, petroleum, gold, diamonds, bauxite, manganese and tropical timber, while importing rice, poultry meat, automobiles, engineering products, consumer goods of all kinds, then chemicals, electronics, refined oil and oil products, textiles, medicines. Ghana has been one of the fastest growing economies in sub-Saharan Africa in the last two decades. There have been many positive signs in the economy, but Ghana’s rapid growth has been halted by the COVID-19 pandemic, mainly due to a sharp drop in commodity prices. Ghana’s total real GDP grew by 3.5% in the first half of 2021, compared to growth of 0.8% in the same period in 2020. GDP is expected to grow by an average of 5.1% in 2021-23.

Basic information about the territory


  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

Ghana is a parliamentary democracy. The state is headed by a president elected by general elections. At the same time, the President manages the executive power together with the State Council. Legislative power is vested in a unicameral parliament with 201 members, one of whom is the Speaker of the House. Deputies are elected for four years. The main political groups are the New Patriotic Party (NPP) and the National Democratic Congress (NDC). Ghana is part of the Commonwealth. In many respects, Ghana’s political system mirrors models from Great Britain and the United States of America. Ghana’s political stability has been maintained throughout 2021, despite the toxic party politics accompanying the close results of the late 2020 presidential election. Check cancermatters to learn more about Ghana political system.

Official name of the country: Republic of Ghana President: Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo (from 2016 to 2024) Vice President: Dr. Mahamudu Bawumia (from 2016 to 2024) Minister of Foreign Affairs: Hon. Shirley Ayorkor Botchway

List of Ministries

Foreign policy of the country

China is Ghana’s largest trading partner and a major source of foreign direct investment. The volume of bilateral trade makes Ghana China’s 7th largest trading partner in Africa. In 2017, Ghana signed up to China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Mutual cooperation focuses on mining, infrastructure, security (loans, financial grants, training, arms transfer, patrol vessels, etc.) Both countries jointly focus on fighting piracy and exchanging information on the activities of terrorist groups. The dynamics of cooperation with the EU was largely determined by the response to C19. The pandemic created an incentive for a better joint presentation of the EU and the Czech Republic and, with regard to European aid capacities and expertise, offered an opportunity to strengthen the EU’s position in Ghana. Also in May, the European Investment Bank signed an agreement with Ghana to provide €170 million to establish a new Development Bank of Ghana to revitalize the local economy damaged by the C19 pandemic.As part of the 2021-27 programming for Ghana, it was announced that Team Europe initiatives will focus on: i) green growth and jobs, ii) smart and sustainable cities, iii) governance and societal stability. The tool will not serve the development agenda, but the implementation of common political priorities. Check prozipcodes for Ghana defense and foreign policy.

Ghana is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Group of 24 (G24), the Commonwealth of Nations, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Ghana is actively seeking membership of the G5 Sahel. The secretariat of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) is located in Accra, the opening of the secretariat of the Accra Initiative aimed at cooperation in the prevention of the spread of terrorism from the Sahel is being prepared. At the meeting of the UN Security Council on June 11, Ghana was elected as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for the period 2022/23, received 185 of the 190 votes cast. The country chose “Strengthening Global Peace and Security for Sustainable and Inclusive Development” as the theme of its tenure in the Council. In October 2019, Ghana expressed interest in becoming a NATO partner. During the last two years, a number of staff-level meetings took place,


Population: 30.8 million (September 2021 est. Ghana Statistical Service)

Average annual population growth: 2.1% (lowest on record)

Population structure by gender: – Women 15,631,579 – Men 15,200,440. There are 2.8% more women than men in urban areas and 0.3% more men than women in rural areas.

Structure of the population by age groups: – 58.2% of the population are adults 18+ and 41.8% are under 18 years old.

Structure of ethnicities: Akan (47.5%) Dagbani (17.0%) Ewe (14.0%) Ga-Adangbe (7.0%) Gurma (6.0%) Kuan (4.0%) Gurunsi (2.5%) Bissa (1.0%) others (1.0%)

Structure of religious groups: Christian (71.2%) Muslim (17.6%) traditional (5.2%) other (0.8%) non (5.2%)