Geography of York County, Maine

By | April 4, 2024

York County, located in the southernmost part of Maine, is a region known for its picturesque coastline, historic towns, and diverse natural landscapes. From its sandy beaches and rocky shores to its rolling hills and inland forests, York County offers a wide range of geographical features and outdoor recreational opportunities.

Geographical Overview:

According to Aceinland, York County is situated in the southwestern corner of Maine, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Cumberland County to the north, and New Hampshire to the west and south. It covers an area of approximately 1,271 square miles (3,291 square kilometers) and is the oldest county in Maine, with a rich history dating back to the colonial era. The county is home to several municipalities, including the city of Biddeford, the largest city in the county, and the towns of York, Wells, Kennebunk, and Ogunquit.


York County experiences a humid continental climate, characterized by four distinct seasons with relatively cold winters and warm summers. The county’s proximity to the Atlantic Ocean moderates temperatures, resulting in milder winters and cooler summers compared to inland areas of New England.

Winter temperatures in York County typically range from the 20s to 30s Fahrenheit (-6 to -1 degrees Celsius), with occasional periods of sub-zero temperatures during cold snaps. Snowfall is common during the winter months, with the coastal areas receiving less snowfall compared to inland regions. Summers are mild and pleasant, with average high temperatures in the 70s to low 80s Fahrenheit (around 21-28 degrees Celsius), although temperatures can occasionally reach into the 90s Fahrenheit (around 32-37 degrees Celsius) during heatwaves.

The region receives moderate precipitation throughout the year, with rainfall evenly distributed across the seasons. The coastal areas may experience foggy conditions, particularly in the spring and summer months, due to the interaction between warm air from the land and cool air from the ocean.


One of the defining features of York County is its stunning coastline, which stretches for approximately 25 miles (40 kilometers) along the Atlantic Ocean. The coastline is characterized by sandy beaches, rocky cliffs, and scenic coves, offering a variety of recreational opportunities for residents and visitors alike.

Popular beaches in York County include Long Sands Beach and Short Sands Beach in York, Wells Beach in Wells, and Ogunquit Beach in Ogunquit. These beaches are popular destinations for swimming, sunbathing, surfing, and beachcombing, attracting visitors from across New England and beyond.

Rivers and Lakes:

In addition to its coastline, York County is home to several rivers and lakes that provide opportunities for boating, fishing, and wildlife viewing. The Saco River, one of the major rivers in Maine, flows through the western part of the county, offering scenic paddling routes and fishing spots for anglers.

Other notable rivers in York County include the Kennebunk River, the Mousam River, and the Ogunquit River, each of which meanders through the county’s inland landscapes. These rivers are known for their scenic beauty, diverse wildlife, and historic mills and bridges.

While natural lakes are relatively rare in York County, there are several smaller ponds and reservoirs scattered throughout the region, providing opportunities for freshwater fishing and outdoor recreation. Notable lakes in the county include Swan Pond in Lyman and Chick’s Pond in Kennebunkport.

Inland Forests and Parks:

Away from the coastline, York County is characterized by rolling hills, inland forests, and protected natural areas that showcase the region’s diverse ecosystems and wildlife. The Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge, located in Wells and Kittery, encompasses salt marshes, tidal estuaries, and upland forests, providing habitat for migratory birds, shorebirds, and other wildlife species.

The Mount Agamenticus Conservation Region, located in York and South Berwick, is a popular destination for hiking, mountain biking, and wildlife viewing, with scenic trails and panoramic views of the surrounding countryside. The region is home to diverse plant and animal species, including black bears, white-tailed deer, and red foxes.

Historic Towns and Villages:

York County is also known for its historic towns and villages, many of which date back to the colonial era and retain their quaint charm and architectural heritage. The town of York, founded in 1652, is home to several historic sites, including the Old Gaol (jail) and the John Hancock Wharf, as well as the Museums of Old York, which preserve the town’s history and culture.

Other historic towns in York County include Kennebunkport, known for its stately homes and waterfront mansions, and Ogunquit, renowned for its thriving arts community and scenic coastal landscapes. These towns offer a variety of cultural attractions, including art galleries, museums, and historic walking tours, providing visitors with a glimpse into the region’s rich history and maritime heritage.

Urban Areas:

The city of Biddeford, located in the northeastern part of York County, is the largest urban center in the county and serves as a commercial, cultural, and educational hub for the region. Biddeford is home to the University of New England and offers a variety of amenities and attractions, including shopping centers, restaurants, and recreational facilities.

York County, Maine, offers a diverse and picturesque landscape characterized by its coastline, rivers, lakes, and historic towns. Its humid continental climate provides four distinct seasons with relatively mild temperatures, making it an ideal destination for outdoor recreation and exploration year-round. Whether relaxing on the beaches of York, exploring the inland forests of Mount Agamenticus, or strolling through the historic streets of Kennebunkport, York County invites residents and visitors alike to experience the natural beauty and cultural richness of southern Maine.