Gambia 1983

By | September 11, 2023

In 1983, the Gambia, often referred to simply as Gambia, was a small West African nation with a rich cultural heritage and a unique geographical setting. Despite its modest size, the country had a diverse population, a complex history, and a range of social, political, and economic dynamics. Here’s an overview of the Gambia in 1983:

Geographic Location:

The Gambia is a narrow strip of land located along the banks of the Gambia River, in West Africa. It is positioned between approximately 13.1 degrees and 13.9 degrees north latitude and 16.6 degrees and 17.5 degrees west longitude. The Gambia’s geographic coordinates reflect its elongated shape, with a coastline along the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

Historical Background:

According to eningbo, the Gambia has a complex historical background, shaped by the interactions of indigenous peoples, European colonialism, and the transatlantic slave trade. The region was inhabited by various ethnic groups, including the Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, and Jola, long before the arrival of European explorers.

Portugal, Britain, and France were among the European powers that established trading posts and forts along the Gambia River in the 15th and 16th centuries. Eventually, Britain gained control of the area known as the “River Gambia” in the late 19th century. In 1965, the Gambia achieved independence from British colonial rule.

Political Landscape:

In 1983, the Gambia was officially known as the Republic of the Gambia. It operated as a republic with a parliamentary system of government. The President of the Gambia served as both the head of state and the head of government.

At that time, Sir Dawda Jawara was the President, having held the position since independence in 1965. The Gambia had a multi-party political system, with the People’s Progressive Party (PPP) as the dominant political force.


The Gambian economy in 1983 was primarily agrarian, with agriculture serving as the backbone of the country’s economic activities. Key agricultural products included peanuts, rice, millet, and sorghum. The Gambia was known for its groundnut (peanut) industry, which was a major export.

Fishing also played a significant role in the economy due to the country’s proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. Tourism, especially along the Atlantic coastline, was emerging as a growing sector, attracting visitors to the country’s beaches and wildlife reserves.

Cultural Diversity:

The Gambia was culturally diverse, with various ethnic groups practicing their traditions, languages, and customs. The Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, and Jola were among the prominent ethnic groups. The country’s cultural diversity was reflected in music, dance, traditional clothing, and art.


While the Gambia enjoyed political stability, it faced economic challenges, including dependence on a few key agricultural exports, which made it vulnerable to price fluctuations in the international market. The country also dealt with issues related to education, healthcare, and infrastructure development.

Foreign Relations:

The Gambia maintained diplomatic relations with various countries and was a member of international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and the Organization of African Unity (OAU), which later became the African Union (AU). The country was an active participant in regional initiatives, including those aimed at promoting economic cooperation and peace in West Africa.


In 1983, the Gambia was a small but culturally diverse nation on the western coast of Africa. Its historical legacy included centuries of European colonialism and involvement in the transatlantic slave trade. The country’s political stability, agricultural economy, and growing tourism sector marked its progress since gaining independence in 1965. The Gambia’s rich cultural heritage, linguistic diversity, and traditional practices added to its unique identity. The years following 1983 would see further developments, challenges, and changes in the country’s political and economic landscape.

Location of Gambia

The Gambia, officially known as the Republic of The Gambia, is a small West African nation with a unique geographic location that has profound impacts on its culture, economy, and history. Situated on the Atlantic coast of West Africa, The Gambia is the smallest country on the African mainland and is almost entirely surrounded by its larger neighbor, Senegal. Here’s an in-depth description of The Gambia’s location:

Geographic Coordinates:

According to paulfootwear, the Gambia is located between approximately 13.1 degrees and 13.9 degrees north latitude and 16.6 degrees and 17.5 degrees west longitude. Its geographical coordinates reflect its slender and elongated shape, with an east-west orientation along the banks of the Gambia River.

Bordering Country:

The Gambia shares its land border with only one country, Senegal. It is almost entirely enclosed by Senegal, except for its coastline along the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

Gambia River:

The Gambia’s geographic identity is strongly tied to the Gambia River, which runs through the country from east to west. The river serves as the lifeblood of the nation, impacting everything from transportation and agriculture to culture and wildlife. It is navigable for a significant distance, facilitating both local and international trade.

Historical Significance:

The Gambia River played a pivotal role in the region’s history, particularly during the colonial era. European powers, including Portugal and later Britain, established trading posts and forts along the riverbanks in the 15th and 16th centuries. The river’s navigability made it a strategic location for the transatlantic slave trade, as well as for trade in other goods.


The Gambia includes several islands within its territory, particularly in the Gambia River. James Island, now known as Kunta Kinteh Island, holds historical significance as a former British slave fort. Other islands, such as MacCarthy Island and Dog Island, are also part of the Gambian landscape.


The Gambia’s location near the equator influences its tropical climate, characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons:

  1. Wet Season: The wet season typically lasts from June to October, bringing heavy rainfall and high humidity. During this time, the Gambia River swells, and the landscape turns lush and green.
  2. Dry Season: From November to May, the dry season prevails, with little to no rainfall. This period is marked by lower humidity, clear skies, and cooler temperatures.


Despite its small size, The Gambia boasts a rich biodiversity. The riverine and coastal ecosystems support a variety of wildlife, including hippos, crocodiles, and various bird species. The Abuko Nature Reserve, situated near the capital city, Banjul, is a key conservation area.

Cultural Diversity:

The Gambia is home to a culturally diverse population, primarily composed of several ethnic groups, including the Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, Jola, and Sarahule. Each group has its own languages, traditions, and customs. The country’s cultural diversity is celebrated through music, dance, storytelling, and festivals.

Economic Implications:

The Gambia’s geographic location has significant economic implications. The Gambia River provides fertile floodplains for agriculture, and fishing is a vital economic activity along the river and coast. The tourism sector, centered around the coastal areas, contributes to the country’s economy, with visitors attracted to its beaches, wildlife, and cultural heritage.


While The Gambia benefits from its location near the river and the ocean, it faces challenges related to agriculture, infrastructure development, and climate change. Flooding during the wet season can disrupt livelihoods, and sea-level rise poses a threat to coastal areas.


The Gambia’s unique location, nestled within Senegal and defined by the Gambia River, influences its history, culture, and economy. The river has been both a source of sustenance and a historical corridor for trade and contact with the wider world. Despite its small size, The Gambia’s strategic geographic position along the West African coast has left an indelible mark on its identity and development.