|Religion||Christianity (58.1%), none (31.9%), Islam (8.3%), other (1.7%)|
|Head of State||Emmanuel Macron|
|Head of government||Jean Castex|
|Time shift||0 o’clock|
|Nominal GDP (billion USD)||3,521.50|
|Economic growth (%)||7.0|
France is a semi-presidential republic with a head of state – a directly elected president for 5 years – at the head of the executive power. The same candidate can only be elected for two consecutive terms. The legislature is a bicameral parliament. Its lower house (National Assembly), also elected for 5 years, votes on confidence in the government.
The French economy is the second largest in the European Union after Germany and the seventh largest in the world. It is highly developed and service-oriented, with strengths in aerospace and luxury goods. For the Czech Republic, France is the most important of the countries with which the Czechia does not have a common border. France has a highly developed multi-sector economy with a wide need for industrial and technological subcontracting, considerable household purchasing power and manageable public finances, which have, however, deteriorated as a result of support measures in response to the crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic. Greater use of opportunities in the French market will be facilitated by communication in French and adaptation to sometimes more demanding administrative procedures.
After a historic drop of 8.2% in 2020 due to the crisis caused by the pandemic, the French economy recorded a significant recovery in 2021 with an average annual GDP growth of 7.0%, the largest in the last 52 years and one of the largest in Europe. At the same time, government support measures in response to the coronavirus crisis led to a sharp increase in public debt. The public budget deficit reached 6.5% of GDP and the debt ratio at the end of last year was 112.9% in relation to GDP. The average unemployment rate in 2021 was 7.8%. The average inflation rate for 2021 was 2.1%. France’s economic activity reached its level before the sanitary crisis in the 3rd quarter of last year.
Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
The French Republic (French: République française) is a so-called semi-presidential republic with a more pronounced executive role of the head of state (president), a multi-party system of representative democracy, a bicameral parliament (National Assembly and Senate), a government led by a prime minister, universal suffrage from the age of 18, a five-year cycle of elections and the three-level territorial and administrative division of the state into regions (régions), districts (départements) and municipalities (communes). Check computerminus to learn more about France political system.
The executive and legislative powers are clearly separated. According to the constitution, the center of executive power is the Council of Ministers, chaired by the president. The prime minister is appointed by the president, who must consider whether the government can obtain the necessary majority in parliament. According to the constitution, the prime minister submits his resignation to the president, but in practice prime ministers are dismissed by the president. Similarly, ministers are appointed and dismissed, but at the proposal of the prime minister and they do not have to be members of parliament.
The main political parties are:
La République en marche (LRM), Mouvement démocrate (MoDem), Les Républicains (LR, formerly Union pour un mouvement populaire—UMP), Union des démocrates et indépendants (UDI), Parti socialiste (PS), Rassemblement national (RN, formerly Front national—FN), La France insoumise, Nouveau center (NC), Europe écologie les verts (EELV), Parti radical de gauche (PRG), Parti communiste français (PCF), Parti radical (Rad), Territories of Progress (TDP ).
The composition of the government is shown on the website of the French government in the chapter Composition duGouvernement.
On April 24, 2022, he was re-elected in the presidential election by French President Emmanuel Macron, who won in the 2nd round over the Rassemblement national candidate Marine Le Pen and, as only the third president of the 5th Republic, defended his second presidential mandate.
Foreign policy of the country
French foreign policy is aimed at preserving France’s important position among the great powers, maintaining a leading partnership and expanding cooperation in the International Organization of La Francophonie and deepening European integration. Of the individual countries, the most important for France is the close relationship with Germany, which is the result of Franco-German post-war reconciliation and the basis of European integration. In response to the crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic, France and Germany pushed through a joint €750 billion European Recovery Plan and joint European debt. The end of the Angela Merkel era and the comparative reduction of German initiative have allowed President Macron to position himself in a leadership position within the EU. The relationship with the USA, the main ally in NATO, is very pronounced. towards which France in recent decades probably most visibly represents the ambitions of the rest of the West for equal status with the balanced benefits of transatlantic cooperation. For most of Emmanuel Macron’s first mandate, the effort to get closer to Russia was visible. At the end of Macron’s first mandate, efforts at constructive dialogue were interrupted by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Check relationshipsplus for France defense and foreign policy.
From Macron’s re-election as President of France on April 24, 2022, it can be expected that he will be consistent in his positions and will continue to rely primarily on a strong European Union, however in cooperation and respect for NATO and the UN. For Macron, the EU should become stronger, more independent, more resilient and based on values. Europe is supposed to be strong, and since the Russian invasion of Ukraine, France has been more positive about its expansion to the east.
France’s positions on current foreign policy issues in relation to individual countries are listed on the website of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the Dossiers pays section.
According to statistical estimates, France (excluding overseas territories) has approximately 6million inhabitants, which represents a population density of 120 inhabitants/km2. The population is growing slightly, around 0.2% per year in recent years.
The demographic composition is as follows:
- 48.3% men
- 51.7% women
- 23.7% under 20 years of age
- 55.2% 20-64 years
- 21% over 64 years
French statistics do not show the composition of the population by ethnicity, but by citizenship or country of birth:
- 89.9% French
- 1.3% Algerian
- 1.2% Moroccan
- 0.9% Portuguese
- 0.4% Tunisian
- 6.3% other
French statistics do not indicate religious affiliation at all. According to estimates by the Pew Research Center, the shares of individual religions in France are as follows:
- 58.1% Christianity
- 31.9% none
- 8.3% Islam
- 0.5% Judaism
- 1.2% other