Finland Northern European state. From the beginning of the Christian era, the Lapps, the first residents of the territory, were pushed northwards by the Finnish populations who occupied the region between the Gulf of Bothnia and the White Sea. The tribes, called suomi, organized themselves into a network of farms, long exposed to the political-military actions of Swedes and Russians. After the settlement in the 6th century. of colonies of Swedish traders, Erik IX the Saint, king of Sweden (1157 ca.) is attributed the paternity of a crusade in Finland, strengthened by the Church in the 13th century. to counter the Russians of Novgorod, committed to converting Karelia to Orthodox Christianity. The political conquest of the territory followed: in 1293 the Swedes built a fortified outpost in Viborg (od. Viipuri), which the Russians considered their territory; the Peace of Pähkinälinna (1323) established the Swedish membership of the eastern border, from the Isthmus of Karelia to the Gulf of Bothnia. In the 14th century.
Swedish law and administration were introduced and from 1362 Finland participated in the election of the king. The colonization formed a social structure of a feudal character, with an administrative organization, at the head of which was a member of the royal family awarded the title of Duke of Finland. The Church, represented by the bishop of Åbo (od. Turku) who adhered to the Reformation (1520), started the national literary tradition with the version of the New Testament of bishop Michele Agricola (1548). In the 16th -19th century. various social and dynastic conflicts developed which undermined political stability and Swedish dominance: from the 18th century. Finnish borders shrunk in favor of the Russians; Finnish nationalism was born, and the war of 1788-90 strengthened the independence movement. The Napoleonic war of 1808 ended with the admission of Finland as grand duchy to the Russian empire, albeit with the granting of a large autonomy by Tsar Alexander I (Treaty of Hamina, 1809). The Finland had the lands ceded by Sweden in the 18th century. and the capital was moved to Helsinki (1812); moreover, he kept the Constitution (which was in fact the Swedish Constitution of 1772, amended in 1789) and the diet (made up of 4 states), proceeding in the development of a national-based administrative organization that favored the formation of a national identity Finnish. The opposition to the Russification policy undertaken by Tsar Alexander III led to the establishment of a modern parliament which became a de facto body of self-government in the perspective of national independence, proclaimed unilaterally in 1917. This, recognized by the Soviet government, was followed by a violent internal political confrontation between “whites” and “reds”, respectively supported by Germans and Soviets, which resulted in a bloody civil war, which ended with the victory of the whites in 1918; in 1919 the republican constitution was proclaimed. In the 1920s and 1930s domestic politics was marked by tensions which saw the affirmation of a strong right-wing anti-democratic movement and the outlawing of the Communist Party; in foreign policy, Finland followed a line of neutrality, intensifying contacts with the Scandinavian countries. In the Second World War, Finland, attacked by the USSR (1939), allied itself with Germany and in 1941 managed to occupy a large part of Karelia; all the conquered territories were then lost and with the Peace of Paris (1947) the Finland had to give the territory of Petsamo, the Isthmus of Karelia, the territory N of Lake Ladoga and a strip of territory along the border to the USSR Oriental. For Finland 1996, please check pharmacylib.com.
In domestic politics, in the immediate post-war period the problems relating to reconstruction and industrial reconversion had particular prominence, accentuated by the high expenses for repairs and the immigration of about 300,000 residents from Karelia. In those years political crises of a certain gravity were frequent, also due to the discovery of an attempted coup d’état (1948). Since then, coalitions of parties have alternated with the government, now center-right now center-left, in the majority of cases including the two major parties – the Agrarian Union (since 1965 Center Party) and the Finnish Social Democratic Party – to which they have joined alternatively the Finnish People’s Democratic League and the National Coalition Party. Presidents of the Republic were CG Mannerheim, JK Paasikivi, UK Kekkonen, M. Koivisto, M. Ahtisaari (Nobel Peace Prize winner in 2008) and T. Halonen (reconfirmed in 2006). On the level of international politics, after the war the Finland followed a line of neutrality between the blocs, becoming a member of the United Nations in 1955 and associating itself with the Scandinavian countries through the Nordic Council in the same year, while maintaining close relations with the USSR before, with Russia then. The process of European integration, supported by both the Social Democrats and the centrists, resulted in the decision of the Parliament, approved by referendum, to join the European Union starting from 1995 (in 2002 the euro came into force).