The gen. Mereskov, on December 19, moves again on the attack, massing between the Muola and Kankola lakes on a front of 30 km. Twelve divisions, in successive waves, are launched against the Finnish lines, but the result is scarcely profitable: the front forms a salient in the middle from Pärkijarvi to Sudenoja at 38 km. from Viipuri and is not yet in contact with the first in line of the fortified system. The attack fails after 3 days of bloody effort. In the north, no movement: the cold exceeds 40 degrees below zero and the ambushes of the guerrillas claim victims.
In the period 11-22 December in Karelia they fought in Aglajärvi with the destruction of 2 divisions. At Sommersalm, in early January 1940, another Soviet division was destroyed; thus of the three columns operating in Karelia, only that of Salla was still in the field. In this area on 17 January the Finnish troops of General Vallenius attacked: the Russians abandoned Kemijärvi and withdrew; they resisted Salla; but on the 19th they were badly beaten. Having received reinforcements, they counterattacked on the 29th with intense cold (-51 °). The Soviet troops on 2 columns, after having occupied Salla, headed for Kemijärvi, the northern terminus of the Arctic railway. The fight resumed, meanwhile, in the isthmus and uninterruptedly from February 1 to 15. The Soviets, in Summa, manage to get hold of one atlocation of the fortified system; but 2 to resist and the Soviet command decides to go around for Koivisto: because he can not put off due to the powerful battery costs, renounces: the battle rages and touches, 11, its culmination. In it were engaged 7 divisions of the 14 deployed, 800 pieces and 700 tanks. In the evening, the situation of the Finns was extremely serious; but they did not yield, although they fought theagainst 10 and, by means, 1 against 20. In total the Soviets, having advanced for 10 km. in 16 days, they were still 21 km away. from Vipuri. The final attack took place on the 16th with 14 divisions. Summa fell on the 8th and with it the Kamara-Summa fortified system; then Muola was taken. On February 22 Vipuri was cleared by the population, Koivisto 26. The Soviets continued in the advance between 2 to and 3 in line slowly, opposed by the Finns who defended Viipuri to the bitter end, so that other six Soviet divisions had to rush of being tucked. The square fell on March 2. For Finland 2009, please check hyperrestaurant.com.
The Scandinavian nations, which had already declared their neutrality on 18 September 1939, offered a mediation which, accepted by Finland, led to the peace of Moscow (12 March 1940).
During the Finnish-Russian campaign, public opinion in Western Europe and the United States of America had been inflamed with enthusiasm for the heroic defense of the small nation against Russian oppression; Finland was seen as the palladium of Western democracy against Moscow totalitarianism. The governments of England and France also aired the idea of tangible aid to Finland: but it did not go beyond vague projects and some aid on the initiative of non-governmental organizations. Germany, linked to the recent pact with the USSR for the division of Poland, remained reserved and vigilant, now all intent on concentrating its war effort in the West against France and England: those complications in the North did not represent now, for it, than a dispersion of forces. But the situation changed after, in the summer of 1940, Germany got rid of France and, having failed to bend England, decided to liquidate the game with the USSR. The Finni’s intentions of revenge, the aversion to the Comintern of the conservative and militarist groups met with the hegemonic plans of Germany. A few days after the start of German operations against the USSR, Finland (June 25, 1941) also took its place in the anti-Soviet camp. aversion to the Comintern of conservative and militarist groups met with the hegemonic plans of Germany. A few days after the start of German operations against the USSR, Finland (June 25, 1941) also took its place in the anti-Soviet camp. aversion to the Comintern of conservative and militarist groups met with the hegemonic plans of Germany. A few days after the start of German operations against the USSR, Finland (June 25, 1941) also took its place in the anti-Soviet camp.
The initiative for the operations was, however, taken by Russia which, on the same day of the 25th, carried out trespassing of troops and air raids on all the weakest points of the border. The command of the Finnish army was entrusted to the seventy-two-year-old Marshal Mannerheim who for the third time led its fate. The marshal intended to take an offensive demeanor and immediately took action, where possible. He reoccupied the islands which had been ceded to Russia; attacked Hankö transformed by the Soviets into a formidable maritime square.
In support of the Finnish army, the German Alpine Corps and the XXXVI Corps, forming the army of General N. v. Falkenhorst who had the task of occupying the ports of Murmansk in the Arctic Ocean and of Kandalakša in the White Sea and to participate in the operations of the Finnish army in Karelia.