Finland Geography and Population

By | December 17, 2021

Fauna. – The fauna of Finland offers features common to the fauna of northern Europe and zoogeographically belongs to the North-European-Siberian sub-region of the great Palearctic region. Among the Mammals, the mole, various bats, the wolf that you meet in herds as in Russia, Poland and Norway. The fox, the marten, the otter, the ermine, known for its white winter fur, the squirrel and various other rodents. Among the Artiodactyls the reindeer (Cervus tarandus) with ramified horns, which is found there in the wild and is also kept domestic, constituting one of the main resources of the Nordic peoples. Among the birds we will notice various birds of prey (owl, owl, vultures, hawks, etc.); various passerines, among which the thrush, the European sparrow, various silvie, motacille, shrike, house martins etc .; various climbers, gallinaceous, ardee; the lapwing, the woodcock, the straw goose, the little grebe, etc. Reptiles are infrequent, represented by some species of chelonî, some lizards and ophidians (snakes). The Amphibians are represented by some species of anurans and urodeles of the genera Rana, Bufo, Salamandra, etc. The terrestrial malacofauna counts several species of northern snails, while various bivalves populate the fresh waters. The entomological fauna is, like that of all northern Europe, characterized by negative characters. In fact, many European insect groups are completely missing from you. Among the beetles, the Carabids predominate and the coleopterological species whose biology is related to the presence of forest essences (Longicorns, Bostrichids, etc.) are frequent. Among the Orthoptera, the Mantids and the bacillus or stick (Phasmids) are missing, while the Acridids, the Locustids and the Grillids are represented. Lepidoptera have various species of northern butterflies, as well as Hymenoptera, Diptera, etc. species with north European geographic affinity are characteristic. Arachnids and Myriapods are infrequent. For Finland geography, please check

Flora. – The vegetation of Finland, with the exception of a narrow edge to the north occupied by tundra formations and therefore devoid of trees, belongs to the Eurosibiric forest domain and of this for a large part to the northernmost area, characterized mainly by coniferous forests with a prevalence of Pinus sylvestris and Picea excelsa (spruce), in which you mix two birches (Betula verrucosa and B. pubescens) and in places boggy alder (Alnus glutinosa), when the latter do not constitute consortiums independent of the coniferous trees. According to the composition of the undergrowth, Cajander has distinguished them into: xerophilic wood-burners with thin and dry humus of the Vaccinium type, EmpetrumMyrtillus, Calluna, etc.: fresh or mossy woods due to the dense cover of Muscinee: woods-grasses of the type of Sanicula, Aconitum, Vaccinium, Oxalis, Ferns, etc. To these woods are added those formed by the pedunculate oak in the southern area. Among the shrubs large areas are occupied by a steppe type, the Hippophaë rhamnoides. Overall, the wooded area, according to a survey carried out in 1920, includes about 90% of the whole territory, excluding that occupied by the numerous lakes. The formations of Prato are also quite extensive, from those of dry soils with a prevalence and of the type of Sesleria, Agrostis canina, Aira caespitosa, Nardus stricta, to those typical of humid and marshy soils with fragmiteti, sedges, eriophorets, etc., which make passage to the real peat bogs, also very widespread.

Natural regions. – In Finland, nine natural regions can be distinguished: 1. Uusimaa (Nyland, the New Earth), between the Gulf of Finland and the Salpausselkä; 2. Varsinais Suomi (Egentliga Finland, Finland Propria), the country of SO. with the opposite archipelagos; 3. Ahvenanmaa (Åland), the major islands to the west, included in the previous subdivision until 1920; 4. Satakunta, on the coast and highlands, north of Finland Propria; 5. Häme (Tavastland), í ra the Suomenselkä watershed and the Salpaus selkä moraines, the most characteristic block of the Shelf; 6. Savo, the region of the largest lakes around the Saimaa system, almost an “internal archipelago”; 7. Karelia (Karjala), the southeastern regions bordering the Soviet republic of the same name (see Karelia); 8. Ostrobothnia or Eastern Bothnia (Pohjanmaa), the successive planes along the Gulf of Bothnia and the lands bordering them from the north and the NE., Up to Maan selkä; 9. Lapland, the extreme hills and plains facing the Arctic Sea.

Population. – The legal population of Finland, estimated in 1929, exceeds three and a half million residents (3,634,047); the resident population is a few hundred thousand lower. The average density, even excluding the area of ​​inland waters, does not exceed 9.3 residents per sq. km, the lowest of the European states, except for Norway. The development of the resident population can be followed in the table:

To contain the effects of the natural increase, emigration intervened, increasingly imposing from 1880 to 1914: 1880-1890 emigrants 26,685; 1891-1900, 59,046; 1901-1910, 158,832; 1911-1920, 67,346; 1921-1925, 31.026. Remember that, in normal times, about 40% of emigrants return to their homeland.

National languages ​​are considered Finnish and Swedish, spoken by 88.7% and 11% of the population respectively (1920 census). The percentage of Swedish is constantly decreasing; in 1880 it was 14.3. It is spoken especially in Åland and on the coast of W and SW, much more in cities than in rural communes. On the other hand, the Lapps (see) (1603 in 1920) appear clearly distinct in the book. The density is very varied. Three zones can be distinguished: the first, from the Baltic coasts up to a line from Oulu to the extreme north of Ladoga, includes all the cities with over 10,000 residents. and in rural municipalities at least 10 residents per sq. km, exceptionally between 5 and 10; the second, between said line, the Polar Circle and the eastern border, has a density almost everywhere between 5 and iresident per sq. km., the third, still in N., has everywhere less than the residents per sq. km. In all three areas the population is particularly distributed along the rivers and on the shores of the lakes, generally agglomerated in increasingly small groups as one proceeds towards N. Administratively 38 centers are considered cities, and bring together 609,157 residents, that is 17% of the population. However, it must be borne in mind that as many as 29 of these cities do not even reach 10,000 residents The following (1929) surpass them: Helsinki (Helsingfors), 234,096 inhab .; Turku (Åbo), 65,291; Viipuri (Viborg), 55.010; Tampere (Tammerfors), 54,824; Vaasa (Nicolaistad), 25,266; Kuopio, 24.003; Oulu (Uleåborg), 23,782; Pori (Björneborg), 18.201; Kotka 16,928 (for the ethnic characteristics of the population, seefinni ; sweden ; Lapps).

Finland Fauna