Finland 1992

By | December 17, 2021

Population. – Although with slight increases (0.3% per year), the Finnish population continues to show a positive trend: compared to 4,598,336 residents surveyed in 1970, which became 4,717,724 at the 1975 census and 4,784,710 at the 1980 census, the population amounts (1990 assessment) to 4,997,678 residents. However, the increase is not equally distributed in the territory: the south-eastern provinces (Kuopion, Pohjois, Mikkelin, Kymen) are generally in demographic decline, according to a trend already evident some time ago; while the population of Lapland (Lapin) and the provinces of Vaasan and Keski-Suomen remains stationary or in very slight progress. The propensity towards the urbanized southwestern region is therefore confirmed. But if the urban population (51% of the total in 1970) had risen to about 62% in 1990, subsequently it did not increase further, while among the cities some have been in demographic decline for years, such as Helsinki itself (which went from 514,000 in 1970 to 492,400 in 1990) and Turku (from 165,000 in 1976 to 159,180 in 1990)), or substantially stable, such as Lahti (93,000 residents), Pori (77,000), Jyväskylä (66,000) and Vaasa (53,000). The most dynamic urban centers are, however, in the South-West: Tampere (171,000 residents) but above all Espoo (166,000) and Vantaa (149,000) which, on the outskirts of Helsinki, largely absorb the loss of population. 000). The most dynamic urban centers are, however, in the South-West: Tampere (171,000 residents) but above all Espoo (166,000) and Vantaa (149,000) which, on the outskirts of Helsinki, largely absorb the loss of population. 000). The most dynamic urban centers are, however, in the South-West: Tampere (171,000 residents) but above all Espoo (166,000) and Vantaa (149,000) which, on the outskirts of Helsinki, largely absorb the loss of population.

Economic conditions. – Having reached a per capita share of gross national product in excess of $ 26,000 per year (1990, according to estimates made by the World Bank), the company can now be considered aligned with the other Scandinavian countries. For Finland economics and business, please check

The demographic and settlement trends mentioned have been matched by a net decline in the active population in agriculture, which went from 25% in 1970 to 8.1% in 1990. To a large extent, this change is the effect of an economic policy that has privileged the industrial sector, accentuating its relative weight, and at the same time rationalizing agricultural activity, acting both on the land structure (abandonment or merging of companies of too modest size), and on management systems (mechanization, cooperative services). However, the extension of cultivated land has remained almost unchanged, being around 7% of the national territory (while the forest area increased from 58% in 1970 to 69% in 1989). Agricultural production, understood as a whole, has instead increased: particularly important are barley (17.8 million q) and oats (11.5 million q), as well as beets, potatoes and wheat. The production of timber is also very remarkable (46.3 million m3 in 1989), which contributes substantially (over a third of the total) to exports, especially by virtue of derivatives: mechanical pulp (3 million tons), chemical pulp (5 million), paper (8 million). The picture of the primary sector is completed by a notable bovine (1.8 million head in 1990) and pig (1.3 million) breeding.

Finnish mineral resources, although not insignificant (chromium, nickel, copper, iron, zinc), are unable to feed national manufacturing production (steel, mechanical, shipbuilding) which is still largely based on heavy industry. A similar argument must be made for energy needs, which are compensated for by imports of hydrocarbons from Russia, but which finds an important source of supply in the hydroelectric exploitation of waterways (13 million kWh in 1988, almost a quarter of production total), which has recently been joined by thermonuclear production (19 million kWh).

The particular international political position of France is also reflected in the composition of its foreign trade (the amount of which has quintupled in the last fifteen years): from 1975 to 1987 the USSR occupied the first place in Finnish trade, surpassed only in 1988 from former Federal Germany.

History. – The second half of the seventies was characterized by a marked political instability linked at least in part to the economic crisis the country went through in the same years and at the base of which it seems to be able to identify also elements of a structural nature such as the poor articulation of the industrial sector and above all the limited energy resources: it is no coincidence that the crisis coincided with the rise in the prices of petroleum products. High rates of inflation and unemployment were the most dramatic manifestations of this phase. After a minority government led by M. Miettunen, formed only by the center parties and resigned at the request of the President of the Republic, the Social Democrat K. Sorsa succeeded in launching (May 1977) a center-left government, which however led a precarious existence due to internal divisions relating above all to the choices of economic policy, and resigned in February 1978 on the decision to devalue the mark for the third time in a year. The subsequent cabinet, which was always led by Sorsa, remained in office until March 1979, when the political elections confirmed the climate of instability.

In fact, they registered a decline of all the governing parties and an advance of the right, without however this constituting a real parliamentary alternative. After a long and difficult crisis, a center-left government was formed comprising the Social Democratic Party (SSDP), the Swedish People’s Party (SFP), the Finnish People’s Democratic League (SKDL, composed of the Communist Party and the Socialist Left) and the center (KESK), headed by M. Koivisto, Social Democrat and former governor of the Bank of Finland. Although characterized by internal conflicts, the new government showed much greater stability than the previous coalitions. The deflationary policy program continued with determination, which, thanks also to the international economic recovery, led to an improvement in the domestic situation. as evidenced by the reduction in unemployment and inflation rates. The resignation of U. Kekkonen for health reasons in October 1981 (he died in 1986) and the election to the presidency of the Republic of Koivisto (1982), which had replaced him since his resignation, led to the leadership of the coalition the Social Democrat Sorsa (February 1982). After two reshuffles, the government resigned in October 1982, following the exit of the SKDL, opposed to further austerity measures and increased military spending. A new three-party coalition led the country until the elections of March 1983, which registered the success of the Social Democratic Party and saw the entry of the ” greens ” for the first time in Parliament.

The new government chaired by Sorsa (May 1984) and comprising the Social Democratic Party, the Centrist Party, the Swedish People’s Party and the Rural Party (SMP), was still based on a deflationary policy and aimed to increase the volume of trade with Western countries. The coalition led the country until the March 1987 elections which marked an increase in the Conservative-oriented National Coalition Party (KOK), more seats (+9) than percentage (+ 1%), a decline in the Social Democratic Party, which, however, remained the party of relative majority, an advance of the Greens. Communists and the socialist left retained their overall votes as a percentage but not the seats, due to the split in the Communist Party (1985) between the the Eurocommunist wing remained in the SKDL and the pro-Soviet wing presented in the elections as a democratic alternative. The split was the result of a conflict that had divided the party since the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the troops of the Warsaw Pact. For the first time since the end of the Second World War, an alliance between Social Democrats and Conservatives was formed for the formation of the government, which replaced the traditional one between Social Democrats and centrists. The new coalition, which also included the Swedish People’s Party and the Rural Party, led by H. Holkeri, a member of the Conservative Party, did not substantially change the general lines of economic, social and international policy of the previous governments. In March 1988 Koivisto was confirmed in the office of President of the Republic. In August 1990, the Rural Party left the government coalition for dissent over social policy. The elections of March 1991 saw the victory of the Center Party, which won the relative majority of the seats, and marked a clear defeat of the Conservative Party (from 53 to 40 seats) and of the Social Democratic Party (from 56 to 48 seats). On the other hand, the extreme left remained almost stable, unified in April 1990 in the Left Alliance (VL), while the Green Alliance, which went from 4 to 10 seats, obtained a good result. In April 1991 a government led by E. Aho was formed, made up of the Center Party, the KOK and the People’s Party and Christian Union (SKL).

In foreign policy, Finland over the years has continued in its choice of neutrality maintaining good relations with the Soviet Union, with which it has renewed the friendship treaty, then replaced in January 1992 by a similar one for ten years stipulated with the Russia. He also intensified relations with the EEC, of ​​which he asked to become an effective member. It also continued to play an active role in initiatives for disarmament and international detente, hosting the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) in Helsinki in 1975, and the preparatory session of the Conference on Disarmament in 1983.

Finland 1992