Finland 1970

By | December 17, 2021

Finland, as an administrative concept or geographic precise, did not yet exist at the time of D.; perhaps the most direct channel for the knowledge that came to Italy on this part of the earth was the Church of Rome. At the time of D., the position of the Catholic Church in Finland was already more or less stabilized.

After the Crusades led by the Swedes in 1155 and 1249, the southwestern part of the country had been conquered for the Roman Church and at the end of the century. XII, the administration of the bishopric of Abo (Turku), dependent on the archbishopric of Uppsala, had been organized. But the Karelian struggle between Rome and Byzantium, which had begun with the third crusade and with the creation of the fortress of Viborg (Viipuri) in 1293, continued until 1323, when Karelia was divided between two cultures, Roman and Byzantine: cultural division that still remains today. The Roman part of the Finland, the bishopric of Turku, already had more or less direct relations with the Roman curia during the thirteenth century: it paid the due taxes to the Church, sent pilgrims to the sacred places of Italy and he also dealt directly with the Roman curia by correspondence and through personal messengers sent to Rome. The Dominicans had already in the middle of the century. XIII their monastery in Turku. Some papal letters also allude to Franciscans who visited the Finland at the time of Dante. Nevertheless, only with Humanism, Renaissance Italy will be able to create an image of philosophy on the basis of classical texts. In fact the description of Tacitus (Germany XLVI), which must be understood as referring to the Lapps who at that time lived in the south of the Finland, was not known in Europe at the time of Dante. For Finland 1997, please check aristmarketing.com.

Other information on the Finns comes from the Arab world (but we cannot possibly believe that D. had knowledge of these too). An oral tradition of the Arabs and the Persians told of mercantile contacts with the peoples of the North. These contacts are confirmed by archaeological excavations that have revealed Persian and Arab coins under the soil inhabited by the Finnish peoples. It should also be remembered that the Arab geographer Idrisi, who lived in the century. XII at the court of King Roger II in Palermo, he left in his Nuzhat al-muštāq a description and a geographical map of Finland; however, it is difficult to know what extent the knowledge of Idrisi’s description had in Italy at the time of D.

Certainly there was also an oral tradition about the country and the people of the Finns among the Germanic peoples who settled on Italian soil (Goths, Lombards and Normans). Nor should we forget Byzantium as a possible channel of oral information. The Byzantine Empire had active commercial and cultural contacts with the Finnish peoples through the Slavs or directly, and at the Byzantine court there had been a guard made up of Germanic elements for centuries.

  • in Finland. – The center of the national awakening of Finland during the last century was the only university in the country, founded in Turku (Åbo) in 1640 and moved to the new capital, Helsinki, in 1828. The national awakening was at the same time a cultural awakening more general, which was to gradually call the latent forces of the nation to active life and thus contribute to renewing also the European contacts, lost during the previous centuries.
  • made his first direct appearance in Finnish letters at a lecture given in Swedish by JG Frosterus on the anniversary of the Ostrobothnia Student Nation on November 9, 1851 (published in Turku in 1853). New contact of the Finnish letters with D. was an article that JW Snellman wrote in 1855 for his newspaper “Litteraturblad”, about a Swedish translation of the Comedy published in Sweden in the same year.

The first attempt to translate the Comedy into Finnish was made in 1886 by Oskar Uotila, a reader of Finnish at the University of Helsinki. In the same year 1886 he began his academic activity at the University of Helsinki Wener Söderhjelm, whose university teaching, marked by a broad cultural vision of a European context, was also of great importance for Dante’s studies in Finland; Among other things, Söderhjelm published (1916) a small biography of D. in Finnish, the only one to date.

The fruit of the activity of the Söderhjelm and its pupils matured at the beginning of our century. Oiva Tallgren-Tuulio, professor of Romance philology at the University of Helsinki, whose merits towards Italian studies in Finland are equal to those of his teacher Söderhjelm, regularly treated D.’s works in his university courses. Jalmari Hahl, a lecturer in general literature at the University of Helsinki, gave a lecture on D.’s aesthetic doctrine in 1912 at the Academy of Sciences, which was included in the Academy’s publications in 1912. The complete translation of the Comedy in Finnish, a masterful work by Eino Leino, the greatest Finnish-language lyric poet, was printed in the years 1912-14 and was received with enthusiasm. The translation of Leino then served as a valuable basis for a another, more modern (1963), which we owe to the poet Elina Vaara, and with whom the Finnish letters worthily participated in the worldwide celebration of the seventh centenary of the poet’s birth. The first and only Swedish translation of the Comedy published in Finland, an equally excellent work by Aline Pipping, came out in the years 1915-24. La Vita Nuova was translated into Finnish in 1920 by Tyyni Tuulio, wife and collaborator of Oiva Tallgren-Tuulio. The Italian Roberto Wis, honorary professor and free lecturer of Italian literature at the University of Helsinki, gave a reading of the entire Comedy there, thus resuming the cycle for the second time. and with which Finnish letters worthily participated in the worldwide celebration of the seventh centenary of the poet’s birth. The first and only Swedish translation of the Comedy published in Finland, an equally excellent work by Aline Pipping, came out in the years 1915-24. La Vita Nuova was translated into Finnish in 1920 by Tyyni Tuulio, wife and collaborator of Oiva Tallgren-Tuulio. The Italian Roberto Wis, honorary professor and free lecturer of Italian literature at the University of Helsinki, gave a reading of the entire Comedy there, thus resuming the cycle for the second time. and with which Finnish letters worthily participated in the worldwide celebration of the seventh centenary of the poet’s birth. The first and only Swedish translation of the Comedy published in Finland, an equally excellent work by Aline Pipping, came out in the years 1915-24. La Vita Nuova was translated into Finnish in 1920 by Tyyni Tuulio, wife and collaborator of Oiva Tallgren-Tuulio. The Italian Roberto Wis, honorary professor and free lecturer of Italian literature at the University of Helsinki, gave a reading of the entire Comedy there, thus resuming the cycle for the second time. wife and collaborator of Oiva Tallgren-Tuulio. The Italian Roberto Wis, honorary professor and free lecturer of Italian literature at the University of Helsinki, gave a reading of the entire Comedy there, thus resuming the cycle for the second time. wife and collaborator of Oiva Tallgren-Tuulio. The Italian Roberto Wis, honorary professor and free lecturer of Italian literature at the University of Helsinki, gave a reading of the entire Comedy there, thus resuming the cycle for the second time.

But despite everything, actual Dante studies remain scarce in Finland.

Finland 1970