Finland 1961

By | December 17, 2021

In recent years, Finland has enjoyed a rather mild climate and the winters during which the Gulf of Bothnia freezes have become rare, while they were frequent in the Middle Ages. The installation of 420,000 refugees from Karelia in new locations, made possible by the tenacious work and austerity regime of the Finnish people, was completed in 1949; 237,000 ha of arable land and 1,632,000 ha of forest have been attributed to them. The return by the USSR of the Porkkala base (1955) made communication between Helsinki and Turku easier, as the railway connecting these two cities was under Soviet control. Now the Finland counts 4.4 million residents (1958) with a fairly significant rate of increase (annual increase 11.5 per thousand). The population increased mainly in the SW regions, which were already the most populated. In the cities and villages of over 500 residents 1.8 million residents live, while 2.6 million live in scattered houses or hamlets, where living conditions are often difficult. However, we do not notice the tendency to leave the countryside for the cities that in an attenuated way. Emigration abroad is lively, from the Swedish-speaking provinces to Sweden. While the country extends between 60 ° and 70 ° of lat. N, the central point of the population is around the 62 ° of lat. N, the central point of the rural population is moved slightly more to the North, that of the urban population significantly more to S. While the country extends between 60 ° and 70 ° of lat. N, the central point of the population is around the 62 ° of lat. N, the central point of the rural population is moved slightly more to the North, that of the urban population significantly more to S. While the country extends between 60 ° and 70 ° of lat. N, the central point of the population is around the 62 ° of lat. N, the central point of the rural population is moved slightly more to the North, that of the urban population significantly more to S.

Agriculture has progressed through the use of a large number of tractors (about 50,000); growing is the cultivation of spring wheat and barley, compared to oats and rye; rapeseed (now extended to 15,000 ha) and sugar beet (which finds favorable conditions in the belt between Helsinki and Turku) are also progressing, while forage has spread to where cattle farming is most widespread. Good profits gives the breeding of mink. The lead mines of Orijärvi and the nickel deposits of Leppävirta (Kuopio) have been added to the already known mines; the discovery of cobalt ore is recent. Forests have increased their importance even more and Finland maintains the first place among the exporters of newsprint and plywood. The factories have grown and, equipped with modern systems, they have seen their production increase by a third. A new but very promising industry is that of prefabricated wooden houses. But alongside these traditional industries, which have a base in the raw materials produced in the country, a series of plants (especially metallurgical) has been developed to meet the obligations established by the peace treaty (1947) towards the USSR: construction of ships, machines, etc. In 1952 it finished paying off its debts (which the USSR has somewhat relieved) and found itself in the need to downsize the industry (which gives support to 29% of the population instead of 21% in 1946), mainly producing what buyers can find in the country (footwear, rubber items, cement, fertilizers, etc.) and in neighboring states, such as ships (its fleet is now 750,000 tons), electrical equipment, cars, dairy and woodworking machinery, etc. Finland takes advantage of the fact that labor is not too expensive and that (although many plants have been lost) it can use a fair amount of hydroelectric energy (7 billion kWh produced in 1958, with a tendency to increase for the new power plants on Finland Oulu). In addition to raw and processed wood, the company sends abroad machines and other products of its industries, but is forced to limit its purchases due to lack of currency; from Western countries it buys textiles, cars, means of transport, from the USSR (and satellite countries) grain, oil, fertilizers, salt. The population has improved the standard of living and tries to get closer to the more advanced Scandinavian countries. For Finland government and politics, please check a2zgov.com.

Finances. – The notable firianziary effort made, first, to liquidate the commitments undertaken in relation to the peace treaty and, then, to lay the foundations for the economic recovery, jeopardized the financial equilibrium both internally and vis-à-vis abroad. And this is also because the reconstruction work took place without the aid given by the USA to other countries.

From 1952 onwards, the inflationary impulse originated from a series of surpluses in the balance of payments as a result of a general increase in exports (particularly to eastern countries) and favorable terms of trade. In spite of the restrictive measures adopted to sterilize the excess of liquid funds, the price-wage spiral has started to rise again, in the presence of accelerated investment activity adequately financed by the banks, and a large deficit in the state budget. In 1956 and 1957, the balance of payments position was still in deficit, although quantitative restrictions on imports were introduced at the beginning of 1957. To rebalance the currency situation, aggravated by an inequality in the direction of traffic, active towards the eastern bloc and largely passive towards the western countries, it was finally necessary to correct the existing exchange ratios through a new devaluation of the markkas (in September 1957). At the same time, an export tax was introduced, whereby traders were forced to surrender a certain portion of their currency earnings to be placed on a non-interest-bearing deposit with the central bank. The funds thus acquired were used, in part, for the repayment of state loans and, in part, for the financing of industrial activities. In 1958, the changed economic climate led to a general relaxation of the credit restrictions previously adopted. The export tax was reduced in four stages, until it was abolished (Sept. 1958). The official parity is 320 markkas for 1 doll. USA Since December 28, 1958, the markkas has been made freely convertible for non-residents. The market rate is defended by the monetary authorities within the permitted fluctuation limits, ie 0.75 per cent in both directions around the parity rate.

Finland 1961