Finland 1938

By | December 17, 2021

Population (p. 403). – According to an evaluation of 1936, Finland had 3,807,163 residents, with an absolute increase, compared to the previous census (1930), of 140,096 residents, and an annual percentage increase of 0.6.

The alarming reduction in the birth rate, which, from the value of 131.1 per thousand before the world war, fell to 18.1 per thousand in 1936, explains the rapid contraction of the natural increase, once very strong, today reduced to 5 per thousand (1936).

It is worth noting the progressive decrease in emigration which, very significant in the past (13,385 residents in 1923; with an annual average of 5,855 people from 1921 to 1930), has now been reduced to insignificant figures (402 residents In 1934; 573) in 1935)

Although the percentage of the population employed in agriculture is still very high, there is nevertheless a tendency towards urbanization for which almost all the main Finnish centers are increasing considerably. In fact, at the beginning of 1937 Helsinki had 283,598 residents (234,000 in 1929); Turku 70,600 (65,291 in 1929); Tampere 61,208; Viipuri 73,227 (the latter city has thus risen to second place by population among Finnish cities); Vaasa 31.499.

Commerce (p. 406). – Foreign trade, after the period of depression culminating in 1931, is regaining its anti-crisis positions, indeed in 1936 exports (timber, cellulose, and animal food products), directed above all to Great Britain, Germany, The United States and Belgium have reached the highest figure since 1919 with a value of 7152 million Finnish marks.

The trade balance is thus clearly favorable to Finland, revealing a notable economic awakening.

Military aviation (p. 407). – The command of the air forces in Helsinki includes: 6 aviation stations; an education center in Kauhava with a school for pilots, observers and an exercise department; the experimental squadron; 1 mechanical school; 1 aviation depot: the latter three in Santahamina. The 6 aviation stations are based in: Utti, Santahamina, Sortavala, Turkinsaari, Suur Merijoki, Immola. The anti-aircraft defense has an anti-aircraft department.

Finance (p. 408). – The stability of the exchange rate against the pound sterling and the favorable balance of payments, which allowed a further repayment of the external debt, contributed to the rapid recovery of the Finnish economy. For Finland political system, please check

As of December 31, 1936, the external debt was 2248 million and the internal debt of 2151 million (of which 2070 is consolidated).

Since March 1933 the currency has been pegged to sterling at the rate of 227 marks = 1 ??? 116 ???, a stabilization which recognized a devaluation of about 50% and which has not undergone further changes. As of December 31, 1937, notes in circulation amounted to 2052 million and the reserve was 635 million in gold and 2032 in foreign exchange.

The main credit institutions are: Helsingin Osakepankki (1913), Ålands Aktiebank (1919), Kansallis-Osake-Pankki (1889) and A / B Nordiska Föreningsbanken (1862).

Bibl.: See the periodical publications of the League of Nations, especially the Yearbook.

History (p. 408).

The internal life of Finland has undergone various events which, without altering its fundamental character as a democratic republic, have revealed the existence of profound political divergences. On August 17, 1931, the union of the Communist trade unions was dissolved, but the unrest did not stop for this; they had it in July 1932, and in March 1933 the government was forced to arrest numerous Communists who were convicted of treason the following April. On the other hand, the government had to face the Lappist movement, of extreme right-wing tendencies, which demanded the dissolution of the social democratic organizations. In March 1932 the Lappists were disbanded, their party suspended, the leaders Wallenius and Kosola arrested. In June of the same year there was a large movement of the Lappists repressed by the government. The elections of July 1932 gave the Socialist party the preponderance (79 deputies), followed by the agrarians (52 deputies), the conservatives and the Lappists (32 deputies), etc. As a result of this, in May 1933 the government banned political organizations of a military nature and the wearing of uniforms, thus affecting the Lappist and National Socialist parties, the latter of little importance in Finland. The prohibition was renewed in April 1934. In 1936 (January 30) the nationalist organization “Siminusta” involved in the unrest of the Estonian fighters was also dissolved. The elections held on 4 July 1936 still saw the majority of the Socialists (83 deputies) followed by the agrarians (53 deputies), the Swedes (21 deputies), the conservatives (20 deputies), etc.

After the referendum of January 3, 1932 which gave 217,288 votes for the maintenance of the prohibition on the sale of alcoholic beverages and a good 546,332 for the abolition of the same, prohibitionism was suppressed by the Finnish Diet with 120 votes against 45 (January 30, 1932). The sale of alcoholic beverages has become a state monopoly. The wet regime came into effect on April 4, 1932.

In the field of social policy, Finland drew inspiration from the German example, decreeing (March 21, 1935) the sterilization of minus habentes and criminals.

In the field of foreign policy, Finland has shown that it wants to live in peace with all its neighbors. On 25 January 1932 he signed a non-aggression agreement with the USSR, extended on 7 April 1934 until 31 December 1945. Foreign Minister Holsti made an official visit to Moscow (February 1937) and reaffirmed the loyalty of the Finland to the League of Nations and the principle of collective security. However, Finland has shown its willingness to remain extraneous to international conflicts and has drawn closer to the Scandinavian states, following a policy of close collaboration with them (see oslo, states of, App.).

Finland 1938