According to constructmaterials, England is the largest and most populous of the four constituent countries of Great Britain. The country’s residents make up more than 83% of the total population of Great Britain, and the English mainland makes up most of the southern two thirds of the island of Great Britain and shares borders with Scotland in the north and Wales in the west. The coasts of England border the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the Celtic Sea, the Bristol Channel and the English Channel.
3500 BCE – A pile of small, charred lumps turned out to be anything but ordinary earth when they appeared during an excavation in Oxfordshire, England. Instead, it is the remains of the oldest known piece of bread from the British Isles. Archaeologists have found clear parts of barley grain, and the bread was allegedly baked 5,500 years ago by some of the first farmers in the country. ( Ill. Vid. 4/2000 )
1340? – The British House of Commons is established.
1606 – April 12. The English state flag Union Jack is officially taken into use.
1854 – March 28. Britain declares war on Russia – the so-called
1872- UFO MYTH: Around kl. 01 am on December 7, at King’s Sutton, Banbury, an object flew at an irregular course. The object looked like a “haystack”, and was followed by fire and thick us. Its effect was very reminiscent of the way a tornado works – felling trees and walls. The object disappeared without a trace.
1877 – UFO MYTH: Three meteor-like objects flew along with “astonishing slowness” across the sky, visible for about three minutes, “flying at the same speed and regularity as a herd of wild geese”.
1880 – UFO MYTH: In Aldershot, England, there was a strange creature, dressed in tight-fitting clothes and shining helmet, flying high over the heads of two sentries firing their weapons at the creature without result. The phenomenon paralyzed them with something described as “blue fire.”
1888 – Early in the morning of August 31 in Whitechapel, London, a driver spotted a lifeless body in one of the many narrow, dimly lit streets. Police were called, and the woman who was later identified as the 43-year-old prostitute Mary Ann Nichols, Polly in everyday speech, had her throat cut. But it was only when she was examined more closely in the morgue that an even more horrific discovery was made – the woman’s stomach had been slit open with a deep zig-zag cut from the sternum to the pelvis. Several violent blows had more or less sinfully cut her abdomen. There were no witnesses to the murder, which was the first of 5 brutal murders committed by the unknown and mysterious Jack The Ripper.
1888 – On September 8, two days after Mary Ann Nichols was buried, another woman was found in the yard of an old rental property. She was even worse prepared than the previous victim. The killer had taken out her intestines and internal organs and draped them over her body. Some organs were missing, including the uterus. The cause of death in this case was also a deep stab wound in the throat. The woman’s name was Annie Chapman, and like Polly Nichols, she was one of society’s most vulnerable and defenseless. She was a 47-year-old widow, alcoholic and at times a prostitute. Police assumed it was the same killer at stake. The investigation was now handed over to Scotland Yard police. Something that did not bother the police.
1888 – On the night of September 30, a month after the first murder, two more murdered women were found. One lay with a severed neck inside a wooden gate, which formed the boundary between an alley and a major street. Around the woman’s neck sat a silk scarf that had been pulled violently to the side, and in her hand she clutched a bag of neck lozenges. The victim’s name was Elizabeth Stride. She was called “Long Liz” and was Swedish, born outside Gothenburg, as Elisabeth Gustafsonsdotter. She also lived a slave life as a prostitute and what came with alcoholism and poverty. Where she had been murdered, a political meeting had taken place nearby that evening, and the participants had left the meeting via a gate to the street, close to the crime scene. It is believed that the killer may have been surprised by the participants from the meeting, which may explain why the 45-year-old woman had escaped being scolded and mutilated like the other two victims. One possibility is that she may have been a random victim of another killer. But less than an hour later, just a few blocks away, a new victim was found. The find was made by a patrolling police officer. In addition to the severed neck, the ruptured abdomen and the removed intestines, the victim’s face was mutilated by stabbing. The body was in the area of the City Police, and a large-scale preliminary investigation was launched with great efficiency – one would probably show the police at Scotland Yard where the locker was to stand. The last murder victim was identified as Catherine Eddowes, 46, also with a sunken relationship behind her and a pitiful life as a prostitute. The police had taken her due to drunkenness, and she was released after midnight. A man stood up and told he had seen Eddowes in the company of a man in his 30s with fair skin and a small mustache. He was wearing a cap and a red scarf and looked “dingy” – but it was a description that suited pretty much everyone in Whitechapel’s male population. There were also letters to the police, one of which had the signature ” Jack The Ripper “, which immediately after became attached to the public. The letter said “ number one peb a bit so I could not finish her…“. The letters were put in the newspapers and opened up to a true deluge of similar letters. One of the letters was sent “ From Hell ” and contained a piece of a new one. Although Catherine Eddowes lacked this organ, since the DNA technique had not yet been invented, it was not possible to know if it was hers.
1888 – A whole month had passed without yet another murder from the dreaded Jack The Ripper, and people had begun to breathe a sigh of relief, right up until November 8, when Jack The Ripper struck again, with the worst of outrage imaginable in Miller’s Court. At this address lived the 25-year-old Mary Jane Kelly “Black Mary”. She was behind with the rent, and when the man who was to pick up the rent looked in through her dirty window, a gruesome sight met him: the tenant’s completely torn body. For the first time, a full investigation of the crime scene was carried out, and the police photographer took pictures that clearly show that The Ripper had now exceeded all limits. The woman’s face was completely obliterated, and several body parts and organs lay scattered across the bed and the room. A witness had seen her enter her room with a man, and heard her singing from there. Two other witnesses said they had heard a woman shout “Murder!” at night, but no one took care of it because that kind of thing often happened in that neighborhood. Again, a number of suspects were found, but none were found guilty. How many murders Jack The Ripper committed in total is a bit disputed, some believe that there were three, most five, while others believe he killed even more, and that he murdered both before and after 1888. Knife murders of women at that time were not unusual, but what made The Ripper unique, and which aroused people’s sensationalism and fear, was partly that he was never caught, and partly because he treated his victims so brutally. Jack The Ripper has taken his place in the pop culture of the western countries, and books will still be written and feature films made about him. See what Whitechapel looks like today here.
Read more here about the Whitechapel murders.
1909 – UFO MYTH: At 21:45 on the evening of May 13, in King’s Lynn, England, a cigar-shaped luminous object is seen illuminating the terrain of King’s Lynn. A witness describes the object as having a “spinning sound” and that it illuminated the earth so that it resembled daylight. When he looked up, he could see the airship-like object speeding over his head, two men were visible in a carriage below, and the object disappeared into the distance within a few minutes.
1909 – UFO MYTH: In the evening at 22, on 18 May in Caerphilly, Wales, Mr. Lethbridge along the road near the mountains when he saw on the grass a large tube-like machine. On board were two men wearing fur and speaking excitedly in a language he could not understand. The grass was masted down on the spot after the object had flown away.
1946 – March 5. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill gives his later famous speech in which the term ” iron curtain ” is used for the first time. See, listen and read the whole speech here (English).
1952 – February 26. Prime Minister Winston Churchill announces that Britain has developed an atomic bomb.
1955 – April 5. At the age of 80, Winston Churchill resigns as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is succeeded by party colleague Anthony Eden.
1969 – January 30. The four Beatles members are performing together for the last time. It takes place on the roof of the Apple House in London, where they are filmed for ” Let It Be “. Due to complaints from the neighbors, the police stopped the concert prematurely, but a number of songs were recorded, and some of these have since been released on, among other things, ” Let It Be “.
1969 – February 14. For the first time, researchers at the University of Cambridge have succeeded in fertilizing a human egg in test tubes.
1996 – February 28. British Princess Diana announces that she has agreed to divorce from Prince Charles.
1997 – August 31. Diana died in a car accident on August 31 in Paris, France. The driver was affected while driving and quickly drove around the streets of Paris pursued by paparazzi photographers. She was subsequently brought home to England by Prince Charles and given a state funeral with the attendance of the whole of official England on September 6, 1997 at Westminster Abbey in London.
Archeology. Perhaps it is a symbolic descent into the underworld. It is so far the archaeologists’ best bid for a mysterious staircase of 29 steps that leads six meters underground into one of the Scottish Orkney Islands. The entrance looks like the opening on a mine shaft. The first staircase is steep and narrow with 17 steps leading down to the first level, from which there is access to two elongated chambers. From this first ‘repos’, 12 steps lead down to the lower chamber. There is no water here, so the plant has hardly served as a well. Ash and bone remains suggest that it may be a place of worship. The plant is believed to be 3000-4000 years old. ( Ill. Vid. 6/2000 )
2003 – February 17. London introduces tolls. When driving into the city center during the day, motorists now have to pay £ 5 – almost DKK 60 – for a 24-hour fee.
2005 – February 10. The British Royal Family announces that Crown Prince Charles will marry Camilla Parker-Bowles on April 8. She has been the prince’s friend for many years.
2013 – August 17. Apparently, new information has emerged about Princess Diana’s death and Scotland Yard is taking it seriously. The information coming from the in-laws of a former soldier was passed on to the military police and reportedly has references to Diana’s diary. Read more here.