Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
Official name of the state, brief commentary on the system of government, political tendencies and estimated outlook, composition of the government. Check cancermatters to learn more about Egypt political system.
- Arab Republic of Egypt
- Jumhuriyat Misr al – Arabia
- The Arab Republic of Egypt
Composition of the 2022 government
President – Abd – Al Fattah Sisi
Prime Minister – Mostafa Madbouly
Min. of Defense – Gen. Mohamed Ahmed Zaki
Min. of Trade and Industry – Neveen Gameea
Min. military production – Mohamed Ahmed Morsi
Min. of religious issues – Mohamed Mokhtar Gomaa
Min. of Civil Aviation – Mohamed Manar Enaba
Min. of communications and information technologies -Eng. Amr Ahmed Tallat
Min. agriculture and soil fertilization – Al Sayed Mohamed Marzouk Al Kasser
Min. healthcare – Khaled Abdel Ghaffar
Min. of Higher Education – Khaled Abdel Ghaffar
Min. of Foreign Affairs – Sameh Shoukry
Min. Interior – Gen. Mahmoud Tawfik
Min. of Finance – Mohammed Ahmed Maait
Min. of education and technical education – Tarek Galal Shawky
Min. of electricity and renewable energies – Mohamed Shaker El – Markabi
Min. culture – Dr. Inas Abdel Dayem
Min. investments and international cooperation – Dr. Rania Al Mashat
Min. supply – Ali el-Sayed Moselhy
Min. of construction and urban research – Assem Abdel Hamid El Gazar
Min. of tourism and monuments – Khaled Al-Anany
Min. Planning and Economic Development – Helmy El-Saeed Hall
Min. for information – Osama Heikal
Min. Justice – Omar Marwan
Min. of the oil industry and mineral wealth – Tarek El – Molla
Min. for Immigration and Population Affairs – Nabila Makram Abd El Shaheed
Min. of transport – Kamel Al Wazir
Min. for Business Affairs – Hesham Tawfik
Min. of irrigation and water resources – Mohamed Abdel-Aaty Sayed Mohamed Khalil
Min. environment – Yasmin Fouad
Min. of labor – Mohamed Mahmoud Ahmed Saafan
Min. for local development – Mahmoud Youssry Shaarawy
Min. social solidarity – Neveen El Kabaag
Min. of youth and sports – Dr. Ashraf Sobhi
Min. for Legal and Parliamentary Affairs – Alaa Fouad Abdo El Hasan
Foreign policy of the country
Relations with other countries (primarily from the EIU)
The country’s trade relations with the EU
The results of mutual trade between the EU and Egypt prove the positive effect of the implementation of the Association Agreement, which has been in force since 2004 (hereinafter the Agreement). Thanks to Egypt’s status as an associated country, the EU is the country’s main trading partner. In accordance with the planned reduction of customs tariffs according to the Association Agreement, from 1 January 2007, products originating from EU countries were burdened with gradually reduced rates, which were reduced to zero. Due to the sensitivity of this item for both sides, the export of European-made cars and their parts was the last industry to see import tariffs reduced to 0% (as of the end of 2018). On the contrary, customs duties on the import of Egyptian products into the EU were removed when the Agreement entered into force. In 2010, both parties adopted an amendment to the Agreement, liberalizing trade with 90% of the range of agricultural products, so that almost the entire range of trade between the two parties now enjoys tariff preference. In practice, according to the conducted investigation, exporters from EU countries do not use the possibility of applying preferential customs rates according to the Agreement to the full extent in practice, which makes exports unnecessarily expensive. This is probably due to their ignorance (primarily the gradual elimination of customs rates) and therefore exporters to Egypt are advised to familiarize themselves with the materially relevant part of the Association Agreement and insist on its consistent enforcement in customs procedures. Check prozipcodes for Egypt defense and foreign policy.
In recent years, Egypt has introduced administrative barriers to the import of some selected products from the EU. By Decree No. 43/2016, the Egyptian government established the obligation of manufacturers of 25 categories of consumer goods, from dairy products to cosmetics to electrical appliances, intended for import and retail distribution in Egypt, to register the brand and the relevant manufacturing plant. For registration, it is necessary to document, among other things, the legal form of the manufacturer, a list of products, licenses required for their production and a quality management system certificate issued by an accreditation company recognized by the Egyptian authorities. these barriers aim to limit the number of certain goods imported into Egypt, as the Egyptian government believes that Egypt should produce them on the domestic market and thus support its own employment.
The most important partners from EU countries are Germany, France and Italy. Mainly German industrial companies have a large presence on the Egyptian market and play a vital role in state contracts. French and Italian firms are heavily involved in Egypt’s energy industry.
The country’s foreign policy is primarily focused on diversifying imports. Egypt is trying to reach a large number of foreign partners for projects of strategic importance, so that it is not financially and politically dependent only on some countries. Russia and the USA are important trading partners. From the Middle East region, Egypt is partially dependent on funding from the UAE and Saudi Arabia, whose development funds and banks provide financing for strategic projects in Egypt.
Egypt relies on security ties with Gulf and Eastern Mediterranean states to deter Iran and limit the growing influence of its regional rival Turkey.
Egypt, the UAE, Israel and Saudi Arabia will intensify joint efforts against security threats, with Israel’s normalization of relations with several regional states facilitating increased bilateral security and economic coordination. The filling of Ethiopia’s GERD dam is causing tension in the region. Egypt, together with Sudan, does not allow the possibility of filling the dam without a signed agreement.
Representation of the EU in the country
The European Union Delegation to Egypt
Nile City Towers, North Tower,
10th Floor 2005 C Corniche El Nil,
Ramlet Boulaq, Cairo,
Egypt phone: +20 2 2461 9860 fax: +20 2 2461 9883
Christian Berger – Ambassador
Brief commentary, including population, demographic composition, ethnic composition, population density, religion.
Population: 105,891,415 million inhabitants as of May 8, 2022
Temporary workers abroad: 9 million
The largest population concentration is in the Nile Valley and the Nile Delta: 95% of the population
Urban population: 42.8%
Life expectancy: 7years
The annual population increase represents: 3.1%
National composition: Arabs are the dominant group. Other small national groups are Berbers, Bedouins, Nubians. The number of Europeans is small, among whom Italians, French, English, Armenians and Greeks have the largest share.
Religious composition: The main religion is Islam, which is practiced by approximately 90% of the population. A minority of the population (approx. 9%) professes some form of Christian religion – Coptic Orthodox, Coptic Catholic, Greek Orthodox or Protestant.