Ecuador Explorations

By | December 14, 2021

Republic of South America. The name comes from the fact that it is crossed by the equatorial line. It borders to N. with Colombia and with Peru, to Ecuador and S. also with Peru; to the West it faces the Pacific with a development coastline of approximately one thousand kilometers. The Galápagos island group, officially called the Colón islands (v.), About 900 km away, belongs to Ecuador. from the Ecuadorian coast.

In 1526 Bartolomé Ruiz, pilot of the second expedition of Almagro and Pizarro, discovered the Ecuadorian coast and explored it from the bay of Tumaco and Ancón de las Sardinas to the Gulf of Guayaquil where, as is known, Túmbez was reached. While Pizarro and Almagro conquered Peru a few years later, Pedro de Alvarado left Panamá disembarked in 1534 in the bay of Caráquez and reached Riobamba, but a lieutenant of Pizarro, Sebastián de Belalcázar, who had preceded him in the conquest of the kingdom of Quito, opposed the march of the Alvarado. When the latter retired, the country was occupied by the conquerors of Peru and the first cities were founded such as Quito (1534), Cuayaquil (1535), Popayán (1536). Gonzalo Pizarro in 1540 crossed the Andean chain and descended for a long stretch the valley of the Río Napo. The Orellana was part of this expedition who, in charge of looking for food for the troop, relied on a ship to the current of the Rio Napo and reached the Amazon abandoning his leader, who had to return to Quito with a thousand hardships. But also the eastern area was later occupied and in 1558 Baiza was founded there. Little progress was made in the knowledge of the region during the colonial period, until the first half of the century. XVIII there was the journey of the astronomical mission directed by La Condamine, which was also joined by two Spanish scientists, Antonio and Juan Ulloa (1735). The works of La Condamine together with those of the Ulloa and the Ecuatorian Pedro Vicente Maldonado fixed the contours and the profile of the region: on the materials of the Maldonado and the other three scientists, it was drawn up by D ‘ Anville a large map in 4 sheets (1750); the geographical information was then summarized and completed by Juan de Velasco who in 1789 published one Historia del Jeyno de Quito.

The travels of Alexander of rumboldt (1801) begin the period of scientific exploration, to which Boussingault (1831), Moritz Wagner (1858), J. Orton (1867), the Pritchett (1856-57), gave their contribution. the Jameson (1857), the Hassaurek (1864-68) and others, as well as the Ecuadorian Villaviciencio who in 1858 published one of the best geographical monographs both for the text and for the large map with which it is endowed (Geografia de la República del Ecuador, New York 1858). This was followed, above all, by the travels of the Germans Wilhelm Reiss and Alphons Stübel who for five years (1870-75) traveled the country carrying out the survey of the first scientific-based map and securely fixing the knowledge of the geology and physical geography of the region. In the following years there were the works of Th. Wolf, teacher since 1875 in the polytechnic of Quito, who also explored the Galápagos islands, those of Eggers, who surveyed the coast (1892) and after 1900 the trips of the Sievers, del Meyer and Grosser and more recently the explorations of the Americans Sinclair and Wasson and Larrea. Among the Italians we remember Pandolfini, who in 1881 visited the Galápagos with the ship Vettor Pisani and Pancheri, who made a journey of exploration in the Salesian vicariate of Méndez and Gualaquiza (1893). For Ecuador public policy, please check

The border with Colombia (400 km.) Was definitively delimited in 1916 and confirmed in 1920, and goes from the mouth of the Río Mataje, on the Pacific, to Ipiales, to then reach the mouth of the Río Ambiyacu in the Amazon River. The border with Peru has not yet been established; the two states have been in dispute for territorial reasons since the time of Ecuador’s separation from Colombia. Ecuador, as heir to Colombia in the border with Peru, would demand the borders defined by the Treaty of Guayaquil of September 2, 1829 (modified by the Pedemonte-Mosquera Protocol of 1830) and that they were therefore brought to the Marañón. Peru does not want to recognize these claims and claims for itself a large part of the Ecuadorian East.

Since, for the treaty between Colombia and Peru (ratified in 1922 by the first and in 1927 by the second), Peru recognized as Colombian a strip of territory between the Putumayo and the Amazons in N. of Tabatinga, and in turn the Colombia renounced any claim on the remaining territories in S. del Putumayo, as a result of which Ecuador now borders with Colombia only up to the confluence of Río S. Miguel-Putumayo, and for the rest it borders with Peru. Most of the recent maps mark the border between Ecuador and Peru as it was fixed between Ecuador and Colombia up to Gracias á Dios on the Río Ambiyacu, and from this point, straight, in the NE.-SO direction, up to the Río Santiago. In the Andean and coastal region the most commonly accepted border is marked by an irregular line that goes down to 5 ° lat. S. and then flows into the sea near Túmbez. This border with Peru would have a development of about 1500 km.

The surface of Ecuador is estimated at 307,000 sq km: the official figure, moreover, which takes into account the disputed territories actually occupied by Peru, is more than double (715,000 sq km). However, Ecuador is one of the smallest states in South America, surpassing Uruguay and Paraguay only in surface area. The population figure is very uncertain, since there are no census data. Recent calculations (1928) it would ascend to about 2 million residents (6 per square km.), Corresponding to less than 1 / 40 of the total population of South America. Astronomically Ecuador is between 1 ° 20 ‘of lat. N. and 4 ° 58 ‘of lat. S. and between 73 ° 20 ‘and 81 ° 10’ long.

Ecuador Explorations