Ecuador Economic Sectors

By | December 14, 2021

Livestock farming and fishing. – The breeding, still not very important, is practiced particularly in the area of ​​the plateaus, where epidemics are rare and where the livestock develops very well. Recent but very uncertain statistics give the republic’s livestock as follows: 1,280,000 cattle, 700,000 sheep and goats, 180,000 pigs, 85,000 horses. In the mountainous region, llamas and alpacas are bred. The breeding gives export a considerable quota of skins. Fishing is practiced, with primitive methods, almost everywhere along the coasts and on the rivers. The areas richest in fish are the Bahía de Ancón de las Sardinas, the Gulf of Guayaquil and the waters of the Galápagos. However, the fishery product is not sufficient for the country’s request.

Mining production and industries. – Ecuador’s mining exploration is still by no means superficial. Presently the most important mineral products that are extracted are oil, gold and silver. Oil has been found in abundance especially around Salinas and Santa Elena, west of Guayaquil, near the coast, and here in some areas it crops out naturally. The exploitation was started in 1895, but has taken a promising development only in recent years, thanks to foreign companies, mainly English. The most important oil fields, those of Ancón, belong to AngloEcuadorian Oilfields Ltd. The oil from this oil basin, which has over 1000 sq km. of surface, due to its low specific weight, and therefore its high petrol content, it is very valuable. Production increases very rapidly: 50,000 barrels in 1922, 213,500 barrels in 1926, 537,000 barrels in 1927. Part of the crude oil is consumed locally, part is refined (there are 4 refineries in Guayaquil) and exported (352,000 barrels in 1927). Another notable oilfield is found in the province of Pichincha between Pomasqui and S. Antonio, and it seems that the East also has oil fields. Gold is mainly produced from the rich mines of Zaruma (province of El Oro), exploited by a North American company, which exports almost all of its product (612 kg. In 1913, 1320 kg. In 1922, 1944 kg. In 1926, 1998 kg. in 1927) in the United States, embarking it in Puerto Bolívar. Other gold mines are found in the provinces of Azuay, Esmeraldas and Chimborazo (mine “Italy”); gold is then extracted in lavaderos del Río Esmeraldas and the rivers of the East. Silver is also mined in Zaruma, and to a greater extent in Pilzhune (province of Cañar). Production is around 2500 kilograms per year (2725 kg. In 1927). Small quantities of copper are obtained in Catacocha (province of Loia); of galena, near Zaruma and Malacatos; coal, in the province of Cañar; of platinum, in the northern provinces, where emeralds are also mined. Near the Daule there are considerable deposits of guayaquillite (mineral used for explosives); Sulfur is extracted, in quantities sufficient for the needs of the country, from Chimborazo and the Galápagos Islands. For Ecuador economics and business, please check

Only the industries connected with agriculture and mining have a notable development. Large industry will never be able to develop considerably in Ecuador, owing to the lack of coal and iron. Water energy is abundant (it is estimated that the country has about 1 million HP; this energy, up to now, is used to an almost negligible extent). The food industries have a notable place in Ecuador: factories of pasta, chocolate, liqueurs, sweets, fruit preserves are located in Guayaquil and Quito; breweries in Guayaquil, Quito; Cuenca, Ambato, Riobamba, etc .; rice and coffee husking plants and sugar refineries in Guayaquil. The textile industries have moderate development (20 factories, 30,000 spindles, 750 looms, 2500 workers): in Quito, Otavalo, Ambato and Riobamba there are factories of wool and cotton fabrics, which export part of their production. The development that cotton cultivation is taking will make the textile industries become more and more important. The footwear industry is thriving in Guavaquil.

Characteristic of Ecuador is the production of panama hats made from the fibers of the leaves of the paja toquilla (Carludovica palmata) in the provinces of Manabí, Azuay, Cañar and Pichincha. The major production centers are Jipijapa, Montecristi, Cuenca and Tabacundo. In 1929 hats for 6,788,000 sucres were exported (out of a total of 86 million sucres ; sucre is equivalent to Italian lire 3.80). It competes with the Ecuadorian production of hats, the production of Peru and Japan.

Ecuador Livestock farming