Ecuador 2015

By | December 14, 2021

Demography and economic geography. – State of South America. From a demographic point of view, Ecuador (14,483,499 at the 2012 census, 15,982,551 according to an estimate by UNDESA, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, of 2014) is a very young country (47% of the population is between the ages of 0 and 24) and ethnically composite (mestizos, 71.9%; indigenous, 14.4%; blacks, 7.2% ; whites, 6.1%; others, 0.4%). Poverty and income inequalities, although reduced in recent years, remain high: according to an estimate of 2102, 27.3% of citizens live below the poverty line, while in rural areas this condition affects two out of three people. Primary education is also a major problem and, despite the progress made through government cash transfer programs to improve education and health care, Ecuador it remains one of the Latin American countries with the lowest literacy rate.

Economic conditions. – The period of political stability enjoyed by the country since Rafael Correa first came to power has allowed Ecuador to achieve moderate economic growth, supported above all by the high price of oil on international markets. The revenues from the extractive sector, the renegotiation of foreign debt in 2009 and foreign investments (in particular those of China, the main creditor country) have allowed the strengthening of the country’s infrastructures, especially in cities, the expansion of public spending and an increase of the share of GDP devoted to education and health. The government’s program not to carry out oil exploration within the Yasuní National Park in exchange for international funding,

History. – After numerous political crises and coups d’etat, in 2006 the economist Rafael Correa, former minister and leader of the newborn left party Alianza PAIS (Patria Altiva y Soberana, Patria proud and sovereign), which was part of the socialism of the 21st century. For Ecuador history, please check historyaah.com.

Strongly desired by Correa, in 2008 the new Constitution was approved with a referendum: in addition to giving greater powers to the executive, it legalized homosexual civil unions, recognized Ecuador as an intercultural, pluri-national and secular state and granted important rights to indigenous communities (including that of being consulted before the implementation of plans for the extraction of non-renewable natural resources present in their territories). In the following years, however, there was no shortage of tensions between these communities and the government, which had maintained many mining concessions on protected territories.

Statist economic policies – based on the rejection of liberalism, on the renegotiation of foreign debt and oil contracts with multinationals, on the nationalizations of the energy and telecommunications industries – led to sustained GDP growth and allowed the government to invest in massive programs. of social policies. This increased the popularity of Correa who, reaffirmed in 2009 (almost 52% of the votes) and passed a coup attempt conducted by the police forces in 2010, was reconfirmed in 2013 (57.2%).

On the international level, Correa loosened ties with the United States, especially through the non-renewal of the concession for the use of the Manta base on the Pacific (2009) and the granting of political asylum to Julian Assange (2012), co-founder of WikiLeaks (see journalism), who took refuge in the London embassy of Ecuador. In parallel, Ecuador he approached left-leaning regional governments – in 2009 he joined Cuba, Venezuela, Bolivia, Nicaragua in the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA) – and China. Finally, strong tensions with Colombia persisted: in 2008, after an operation against the FARC guerrillas inside the Ecuadorian border, Correa broke diplomatic relations with Colombia, then resumed in 2010.

Architecture. – The architectural culture of Ecuador reflects indigenous, North American, Latin American, Spanish and African influences. Despite a slow growth in productivity and the economy, the country, which is located within the continent that boasts the highest rate of eco-diversity in the world, according to data from the World trade organization (WTO), is today among the of Latin America, the most attractive for foreign investors. In the growth strategies, the priority of investments in the sectors of education, science, technology and innovation has been recognized: since August 2010, the government, the Ministry of Economy and the Central Bank of Ecuador have put on their agenda new, significant funding for architectural design, placing the emphasis on sustainability,

Quito, the capital, has always divided the economic and industrial government of the country with the coastal city of Guayaquil; these are the two cities where the greatest number of qualified architectural examples has been recorded. Notable buildings in the first are: the Instituto metropolitano de diseño (2014) by Mauricio González González; the Vivalto apartment building (2013) by Najas Arquitectos; the addition of the Gerardo Anker Library to the campus of the Colegio Alberto Einstein (2013) of L + A Arquitectos; the Onyx apartment building (2012) by Diez + Muller Arquitectos. In Guayaquil we remember: the Integral Iluminación shopping complex (2014) by Jannina Cabal and the plaza Baquerizo Moreno (2012) by Juan Xavier Chávez.

There are still many private residential architectures worthy of note, generally marked by a notable attention to the landscape in which they are located: Diego Guayasamin’s house-museum (2007) in Cumbayá; the house (2012) of Arquitectura X in Cotacachi; the Casa Loma (2013) by Iván Andrés Quizhpe in Cuenca; the Lienzo de Barro house (2013) by Chaquiñán in Tumbaco; the Gazebo house (2013) of the AR + C studio in Guayllabamba; the Los Chillos house (2012) by Diez + Muller Arquitectos in Valle de los Chillos; the NR2 house (2012) by Roberto Burneo Arquitectos in Balcon de Valle; the G1 house (2012) of Gabriel Rivera Arquitectos in Guayllabamba; the Puente house (2011) by Diez + Muller Arquitectos in Psje El Valle, in the canton of Quito; the Los Faiques apartment complex (2011) by Duran & Hermida arquitectos asociados in Valle de Yunguilla; the Algarrobos house (2011) by José María Sáez + Daniel Moreno Flores in Puembo; the Quilotoa Shalalá viewpoint (2013) by Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez, Javier Mera Luna, Daniel Moreno Flores in Zumbahua.

Ecuador Architecture