Ecuador 1978

By | December 14, 2021

Surface. – The Ecuadorian territory, according to the official data available (see table), extends for km 2 263,777, but according to calculations carried out by the UN the surface would be 283,561 km 2 ; other sources give instead the figure of 281,561 km 2, always including the Galápagos islands.

Population. – According to the 1974 census, it amounts to 6,500,845 residents, almost 98% concentrated in the Costa and Serra regions. In the decade 1963-1972 the average annual growth coefficient of the population was 3.4%.

Economic conditions. – The political instability of the last few years, the limited ability to save and a rigid social structure, have not until now allowed the mobilization of the forces necessary for the economic transformation of the country which has lagged behind the other South American countries. Agriculture continues to be the most important economic activity of Ecuador: bananas (28 million q in 1974), cocoa (680,000 q) and coffee are the main products grown in the humid and low lands of the Costa widely exported. Cereals (wheat, maize, barley) and potatoes are grown on the plateau, destined for internal consumption. The forest heritage is immense, but still little exploited. The breeding is practiced above all in the regions of the Serra. For Ecuador political system, please check

The main mineral resource is oil; the development of the exploitation of the new wells of the East, the construction of the oil pipeline through the Andes (from Lago Agrio to Esmeraldas) and the beginning of the export of oil in 1972, are factors that will certainly contribute to substantially change the economy of the country. Still marginal is the extraction of copper ores and uranium; the latter, however, is destined to acquire considerable importance.

The food, textile (cotton yarn) and cement industries are the most active; typical is the artisan industry of panamá- type hats made with the fibers of the toquilla palm.

Communications. – They are still very scarce and insufficient: 1340 km of railways and 25,000 km of roads serve only the western half of the country, while in the eastern regions there is practically no efficient communication routes.

Commerce. – To the traditional export of agricultural products, oil has been added since 1972; while in 1971 the trade balance showed a negative balance of 40 million dollars, in 1972 the balance had become positive for 52 million and in 1973 against 345.7 million dollars of imports there were 550.6 million of exports (239, 5 of oil, 109.2 of bananas, 66.7 of coffee, 23.1 of cocoa) with a positive balance of 204.9 million.

Literature. – An author and an institution summarize in themselves the sense of the broad and profound evolution that Ecuadorian literature has undergone, one of the most interesting in Hispanic America today. The author is the poet J. Carrera Andrade, born in 1903, known and translated in many foreign countries; the institution is the “Casa de la Cultura” of Quito, which through courses, performances, debates and publications has carried out a meritorious and substantially free activity of dissemination of contemporary philosophical, literary, artistic trends. Carrera Andrade’s poetry has added several books to those that had given him his first celebrity in the 1920s and 1930s. Especially in La llave del fuego (1950), Dictado por el agua (1951), Familia de la noche (1954), Moneda del forastero (1958), which mark a moment of fruitfulness marked by a continuous and coherent inspiration. Carrera Andrade expressed his nostalgia for his native country – a constant theme in this perpetual traveler – with accents of enchanted and lucid memory, but above all he accentuated the metaphysical and moral aspects of his vision of the world. It was, according to the author’s own testimony, the Second World War that brought about a real trauma in his spirit: from 1945 onwards he felt that an entire cycle of human history was about to end, and that it was up to the poets to provide a full testimony. on the purity of natural life and on the humanistic dignity of civilization, on the edge of an abyss into which they were about to fall. The word of water that “dictates” the stories of primitive man, and the secret childish aspirations of the perennial man, is the very symbol of Carrera Andrade’s high and clear music, of that airy, luminous language that pursues a Platonic ideal of perfection. Nor should poems such as Las armas de la luz (1955) or Hombre planetario (1959) which introduce the idea of ​​a universal community, capable of reconstituting itself over time; and again Crónica de las Indias (1965), Floresta de los Guacamayos (1964), El alba llama a la puerta (1966), Poesia última (1968), where we pass from the condemnation of Pizarro, the first South American dictator of the world, to appeals heartfelt for the unity of peoples. His prose work found a lyrically happy moment in La tierra siempre verde (1955), an amorous description of the homeland, and a high sense of critical reflection in Interpretaciones hispanoamericanas (1967). Faced with a figure of this magnitude it is difficult to dwell on other poets, but without a doubt at least the elderly G. Escudero (born in 1903) and the very new R. Díez Icaza (born in 1925), G. Espinel (born in 1937) deserve mention.) and I. Carvallo Castillo (born in 1937), author of the poem Amazonia.

The main narrator of the “Guayaquil group”, D. Aguilera Malta (born in 1905), left the novel for a long time, due to his activities as a diplomat, teacher and theater director. But in 1960 he reappeared with Una cruz en la Sierra Maestra, a novel about the Cuban civil war, then resumed the historical cycle of the “American episodes” with La Caballeresa del Sol (1964), El Quijote del Dorado (1964), Un nuevo mar para el Rey (1965), etc. While H. Mata (born 1904) continued to produce his unequal but popular novels, new storytellers came to the fore: the aforementioned Díez Icaza, with Los rostros del miedo (1962), V. Levi with Fuego en la arena (1969) and Othon Castillo with Sed en el puerto (1965). The problem of the black is still the central theme of the work of A. Ortiz (1914), who brought together his stories in La mala espalda (1952) and poetic pages in El animal herido (1959). The strength of his Yuyungo (1942), which remains his great success, was followed by a more refined and controlled formal elaboration.

Theater as a show has recently had great development in Ecuador, thanks to official or experimental initiatives, with the massive importation of great foreign texts, specialized magazines, the appearance of directors, set designers and actors of great importance. As for national dramaturgy, the experience of J. Icaza ended in the Thirties, devoted to fiction after the success of Huasipungo, and the various fortunes of LA Moscoso (born in 1909) and P. Jorge Vera (born in 1914) have now passed.), the major events are linked to the name of Aguilera Malta, with El pirata ghasma (1950) and Dientes blancos (1955), conceived with a view to his imaginative direction, and above all to the work of F. Tobar García (born in 1928), where a fundamental ethical-religious concern is grafted onto an authentic dramatic vocation.

Ecuador Literature 2